Columbus’ first impressions of Native Americans

At the time of the first discoveries, Europeans tended to view the New World from one of two contrasting perspectives. Many saw America as an earthly paradise, where the native peoples led lives of simplicity and freedom similar to those enjoyed by Adam and Eve in the Biblical Garden of Eden. Other Europeans described America in a much more negative light: as a dangerous and forbidding wilderness, a place of cannibalism and human misery, where the population lacked Christian religion and the trappings of civilization. But it was the positive view of America as a land of liberty, liberation, and material wealth that would remain dominant. In a letter reporting his discoveries to Luis de Sant Angel, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and to the King and Queen of Spain, Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) paints a portrait of the indigenous Taino Indians as living lives of freedom and innocence.

As you read the following excerpt, consider the following questions:
1. Analyze why Columbus would want to describe the natives as he does in a communication to the Spanish court.
2. In what descriptions does Columbus betray a patronizing attitude? How does this judgment influence Spanish behavior on Hispaniola?
3. How would you characterize the Natives’ attitudes toward possessions?

Two excerpts from the journal of Cristofero Colon, dated 1492 and 1493:

As I saw that they were very friendly to us, and perceived that they could be much more easily converted to our holy faith by gentle means than by force, I presented them with some red caps, and strings of beads to wear upon the neck, and many other trifles of small value, wherewith they were much delighted, and became wonderfully attached to us. Afterwards they came swimming to the boats, bringing parrots, balls of cotton thread, javelins, and many other things which they exchanged for articles we gave them, such as glass beads, and hawk’s bells; which trade was carried on with the utmost good will. But they seemed on the whole to me, to be a very poor people. They all go completely naked, even the women, though I saw but one girl. All whom I saw were young, not above thirty years of age, well made, with fine shapes and faces; their hair short, and coarse like that of a horse’s tail, combed toward the forehead, except a small portion which they suffer to hang down behind, and never cut. Some paint themselves with black, which makes them appear like those of the Canaries, neither black nor white; others with white, others with red, and others with such colors as they can find. Some paint the face, and some the whole body; others only the eyes, and others the nose. Weapons they have none, nor are acquainted with them, for I showed them swords which they grasped by the blades, and cut themselves through ignorance. They have no iron, their javelins being without it, and nothing more than sticks, though some have fish-bones or other things at the ends. They are all of a good size and stature, and handsomely formed. I saw some with scars of wounds upon their bodies, and demanded by signs the of them; they answered me in the same way, that there came people from the other islands in the neighborhood who endeavored to make prisoners of them, and they defended themselves. I thought then, and still believe, that these were from the continent.

Painting of a Taino
It appears to me, that the people are ingenious, and would be good servants and I am of opinion that they would very readily become Christians, as they appear to have no religion. They very quickly learn such words as are spoken to them. If it please our Lord, I intend at my return to carry home six of them to your Highnesses, that they may learn our language. I saw no beasts in the island, nor any sort of animals except parrots.

…The people of this island [Hispaniola] and of all the other islands which I have found and seen, or have not seen, all go naked, men and women, as their mothers bore them, except that some women cover one place with the leaf of a plant or with a net of cotton which they make for that purpose. They have no iron or steel or weapons, nor are they capable of using them, although they are well-built people of handsome stature, because they are wondrous timid. They have no other arms than the arms of canes, [cut] when they are in seed time, to the end of which they fix a sharp little stick; and they dare not make use of these, for oftentimes it has happened that I have sent ashore two or three men to some town to have speech, and people without number have come out to them, as soon as they saw them coming, they fled; even a father would not stay for his son; and this was not because wrong had been done to anyone; on the contrary, at every point where I have been and have been able to have speech, I have given them of all that I had, such as cloth and many other things, without receiving anything for it; but they are like that, timid beyond cure. It is true that after they have been reassured and have lost this fear, they are so artless and so free with all they possess, that no one would believe it without having seen it. Of anything they have, if you ask them for it, they never say no; rather they invite the person to share it, and show as much love as if they were giving their hearts; and whether the thing be of value or of small price, at once they are content with whatever little thing of whatever kind may be given to them. I forbade that they should be given things so worthless as pieces of broken crockery and broken glass, and lace points, although when they were able to get them, they thought they had the best jewel in the world. Even bits of the broken hoops of wine casks they accepted, and gave in return what they had, like fools, and it seemed wrong to me. I forbade it, and gave a thousand good and pretty things that I had to win their love, and to induce them to become Christians, and to love and serve their Highnesses and the whole Castilian nation… And they know neither sect nor idolatry, with the exception that all believe that the source of all power and goodness is in heaven, and in this belief they everywhere received me, after they had overcome their fear. And this does not result from their being ignorant (for they are of a very keen intelligence and men who navigate all those seas, so that it is wondrous the good account they give of everything), but because they have never seen people clothed or ships like ours. Directly I reached the Indies in the first isle I discovered, I took by force some of the natives, that from them we might gain some information of what there was in these parts; and so it was that we immediately understood each other, either by words or signs. They are still with me and still believe that I come from heaven. They were the first to declare this wherever I went, and the others ran from house to house, and to the towns around, crying out, “Come! Come! And see the men from heaven!”

Link for further information:
First Voyage of Columbus: Meeting the Islanders (1492)

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21 responses to this post.

  1. columbo seems like a cool guy…

    Reply

  2. Posted by eSKAlator on August 21, 2006 at 9:34 pm

    yeah except for the part about keepiong them as slaves, hes nicer than everyone else

    Reply

  3. Posted by Revolution Peace on August 21, 2006 at 9:56 pm

    did columbus come with the spaniards? does that mean he and his “crew” were of the few to actually treat the native americans fairly?

    Reply

  4. Posted by louie ortega on June 27, 2008 at 7:08 pm

    i am looking for taino pics could someone help guide me in the right direction also i am looking for a way to trace heritage

    Reply

  5. Posted by afrotaino on July 9, 2008 at 9:44 pm

    You say he treated them fairly? Do you call genocide fair?… I hope your kidding!

    Reply

  6. Posted by Marla on September 24, 2008 at 8:13 am

    Be may not believe it, but Christopher Columbus was a crackhead! What they don’t tell you is that he did drugs and he and his crew raped the indian women! He was a pompus jerk!

    Reply

  7. Posted by Drewster on August 14, 2009 at 2:08 pm

    Columbus’ fair trades and gifts were a perfect mask for his ultierior motives of enslaving the natives. What a snake!

    Reply

  8. Posted by SpeedyGonzalez on August 16, 2009 at 8:27 pm

    Hey scoop “Cristofero” isn’t the name for Christopher Columbus.

    It’s Cristofero in Italian or Cristobal in spanish.

    Christopher’s name meaning is “carrier of Christ” from the legend of St. Christopher.

    Reply

  9. Posted by SpeedyGonzalez on August 16, 2009 at 8:28 pm

    Sorry I mean

    ** It’s Cristoforo in Italian or Cristobal in Spanish**

    Reply

  10. Posted by SlapHappyFangs on August 17, 2009 at 9:35 pm

    That’s horrible of the Europeans to just waltz right in and impose their religion and culture on a whole society. Just because the Native Americans were less advanced didn’t mean they didn’t have their own beliefs. The Native Americans were so naive and kind to the Europeans, or so this article makes it seem. Yet the Spaniards saw a chance to make more money, and pushed a whole defenseless civilization aside. If there’s one things this taught me, it was that people can be so selfish.

    Reply

  11. Posted by Maryam on October 10, 2010 at 3:57 pm

    SERIOUSLY!! in my school we are doing a trial of columbus, and I am on the prosecution side! WOW! columbus is an idiot. Thinking he could just walk up to a native american and just take the person as a slave. will he like it if we do that?!?!

    Reply

  12. Posted by Sanaja on October 17, 2010 at 9:24 pm

    hello this dude is indirectly responsible for the genocide of the tainos……..and if he’s sooooo cool why didnt he try to stop the members of his fleet from treating them so harshly……..he was not unaware of the things that were going on where the tainos were concerned………columbus WAS NO HUMANITARIAN!!!!

    Reply

  13. Posted by deedee on January 23, 2011 at 5:03 am

    yea, i agree he was an idiot. but here’s the newsflash: it happened over 500 years ago and he’s dead now. Saying the stuff you guys say isn’t gonna change anything so get over it!!

    Reply

  14. It’s so funny how everyone says Columbus discovered America when he gets here and he meets all these American Indians. So a: They discovered America, and b: Columbus didn’t even know he was on new land! He thought he was in india! I don’t even know why there’s a Columbus day. Christopher columbus was a idiotic, backstabbing, abusive jerk!

    Reply

  15. Posted by Domingo on August 22, 2013 at 2:06 pm

    So which one is it. This man lands in the islands od the caribbean, touches the mainland in South America. Touches Central America, but never lands on the main land of North America. Right? So his biggest fans celebrate him but to this day refuse to see as americans the people from the very territories he landed on. See what I mean?

    Reply

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