Archive for February, 2007


Study! It will be an old AP Test– MC and FRQ sections only.

Bring in your checks for the AP EXAM NOW!!!!!!!

Outline Notes 35– due Tuesday, March 6

35 Outline

Make sure you answer the questions or explain the subsection titles. Always consider the consequences and historical significance!

I. How important was foreign policy to FDR, and why? How does the US deal with its empire during the early years of FDR’s administration?
—–A. Trade: what does economics have to do with foreign relations?
———-1. London Conference
———-2. Reciprocal Trade Agreements
———-3. Isolationism
———-4. Johnson Debt Default Act
—–B. Tydings-McDuffie Act
—–C. Good Neighbor policy and nonintervention
———-1. Guantanamo
———-2. Panama
———-3. Mexico
—–D. What were the economic causes for totalitarianism?
—–E. Criticism of WWI
———-1. Merchants of Death and Nye Committee
—–F. Isolationism and the Neutrality Acts
———-1. Lucky Lindy and the America Firsters
———-2. What is meant by “Fortress America?”

II. What were the rising threats from abroad?
—–A. Germany
———-1. Rise of Nazis
———-2. remilitarization
———-3. Creating A Greater Germany in Austria, Sudentenland…
———-4. Holocaust (Shoah)
—————a. What effect did these refugees have on the rest of the world?
———-5. Nonaggression Pact
———-6. Poland and “phony war”
———-7. Fall of France
—–B. Italy
———-1. Rise of Fascists
———-2. Ethiopia
—–C. Japan
—–D. Spain
—–E. US (and others) reactions:
———-1. Weakness of League of Nations
———-2. “Quarantine”
———-3. Appeasement
—————a. Munich pact b. Panay incident

III. The US is forced to take action
—–A. Effect of Fall of France
———-1. Conscription Law
———-2. Havana Conference
—–B. Destroyers Deal
———-(What do we get?)
—–C. Lend-Lease and controversy surrounding it
—–D. Atlantic Conference and Atlantic Charter
—–E. Greer, Kearny and Reuben James
—–F. Pearl Harbor

Quiz 33-35 on Monday, etc.


African American Projects due Monday

Ch. 36 Outlines due Monday!


Upcoming deadlines

1. Terms check 35 Tuesday, Feb. 20

2. Quiz chapters 33-35 Thursday Feb 22 for B day, and Friday, Feb. 23 for C day

3. Continue working on your research over African Americans– Basic outline of your findings is due Wednesday, Feb. 21 FOR EVERYONE!!!!

4. Your outline for Chapter 36 notes is already posted. These are due on Monday, February 26– so you’ve got plenty of time! USE IT!

Words of the Day for the week of February 5-9

These are the words we discussed during this week. Make sure you know what they mean and how to use them correctly.

New terms:
gunboat diplomacy
Brahmin as in”Boston Brahmin”

Greek and Latin roots:
mort- death
non- not
ambi- both
dis- not, free from, undo
belli- war

Where’s the snow?????

Grumble, grumble, grumble— so did anyone out there already wake up and take a shower before finding out about the snow day? Of course not, because YOU are kids who don’t let a little fact like the lack of a single FLAKE of snow on the ground mean anything. WAAH!

And now I’m awake and watching those morning news show people be creepily cheery while hoping I get tired enough for a good nap.

Well, anyway, img_7077-coot-looking-for-food-in-snow.jpg here’s a picture of an old coot in the snow– that would be me later in the day, IF we get this promised– maybe “threatened” is a better word– snowfall.

—-Okay, now there’s snow. But STILL.

Meanwhile, I’ll give extra credit to those who come in tomorrow (or whenever we next meet) with some research accomplished on their projects (printing it off will provide proof) and a 250-300 word summary of what they have found so far.

I will also give extra credit for creating a timeline of important events in African-American history. Include court cases, proclamations, and significance of events. You would want to include the first Africans brought to America, the time periods by which slavery was made legal and illegal in all the colonies, and so on. At least twenty-five items, please, and it MUST BE IN YOUR OWN WORDS and not just copied off the internet.

Please make sure you have read over the poems and the Debs speech and have notes over them to bring with you for the next class.

assignments coming up….

1. Read the 14 Points and summarize each one in ten words or less… OR summarize each in a haiku.

2. Read the four poems on World War I and take notes– be ready to discuss these on Wednesday/Thursday. Bringing them with you to class might be helpful.

3. If any of you have not given me your answers to the Wilson reading, I need them MONDAY.

4. Chapter 35 Outlines are due Friday, February 16.

The Fourteen Points

Both before and after American entry into the conflict known as the Great War, President Wilson called on the belligerents to state their war aims. But since many of these aims involved territorial ambitions, both sides refused. Finally Wilson lost patience, and on January 8, 1918, went before Congress to enunciate what he considered the basic premises of a just and lasting peace. The Fourteen Points, as the program came to be called, consisted of certain basic principles, such as freedom of the seas and open covenants, a variety of geographic arrangements carrying out the principle of self-determination, and above all, a League of Nations that would enforce the peace.

The Fourteen Points are important for several reasons. First of all, they translated many of the principles of American domestic reform, known as Progressivism, into foreign policy. Notions of free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination were mere variants of domestic programs that reformers had been supporting for two decades. Second, the Fourteen Points constituted the only statement by any of the belligerents of their war aims. They thus became the basis for German surrender, and the only criteria by which to judge the peace treaty.

Most important, where many countries believed that only self-interest should guide foreign policy, in the Fourteen Points Wilson argued that morality and ethics had to be the basis for the foreign policy of a democratic society. While subsequent American governments have not always shared that belief, many American presidents have agreed with the Wilsonian belief in morality as a key ingredient in foreign as well as domestic policy.

Question for Understanding:
Summarize each of the points in 10 words or less.
(EXTRA CREDIT: Summarize each point in a haiku.)

From a speech given before Congress on January 8, 1918.

We entered this war because violations of right had occurred which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own people impossible unless they were corrected and the world secured once for all against their recurrence. What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression. All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done to others it will not be done to us. The program of the world’s peace, therefore, is our program; and that program, the only possible program, as we see it, is this:

I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.

II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.

III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.

IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.

V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.

VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.

VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.

VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.

IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.

X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development.

XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.

XII. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of an autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.

XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.

XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.