Archive for December, 2008

Extra Credit Oral History Project

If you are interested in a way to expand your knowledge of recent America History, you may create an Oral History Project worth up to 50 points of extra credit for semester 2. Points earned will be based on crafting insightful questions and being able to learn something immediate and interesting about the person you interview. I strongly suggest that you research some oral history projects to determine how to do Oral History well. You may interview a friend or family member who has personally experienced an historically significant event, such as fighting in a war, participating in a movement, living through the Great Depression, or serving in a public office. This project should generate an interesting story of someone’s life. A good interview should take at least twenty minutes.

The final project will be due on January 19. Be prepared to show me the questions you drafted and have them approved after break.

Here are some links to help you create some questions:  The WPA Folklore Project The American Century Project  The Veterans History Project Women’s Movement (with examples)

Chapter terms, etc, 2nd semester


Here’s the whole thing. CHAPTER 24 is DUE on the first day back from break!!

Chapter 24, Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Union Pacific Railroad___Central Pacific Railroad ____Big Four
Collis Huntington______Thomas Edison________John P. Morgan
Terence V. Powderly_____Andrew Carnegie______John Altgeld
Interstate Commerce Act__trust_______________Bessemer process
“Drake’s Folly”_________Sherman Antitrust Act__Gibson Girl
lockout ______________company town_______Nat’l Labor Union
Knights of Labor _______American Fed. of Labor ___Haymarket Square episode
Samuel Gompers_______Mary Harris Jones_______“closed shop”
Cornelius Vanderbilt ____John D. Rockefeller______Jay Gould
vertical integration______horizontal consolidation_____pool
rebate _______________interlocking directorate ____injunction
standard time__________US Steel_____________gospel of wealth
the Grange____________William G. Sumner _____Haymarket riot
yellow dog contract______New South
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Explain the central role of the railroads in late 19th century America.
— Examine the dramatic impact of “big business” and the new industrial corporations on the American economy and American life in general.
— Examine the gains and losses for various groups (business, labor, women, minorities, immigrants) accruing from industrialization.

Chapter 25, America Moves to the City, 1865-1900
Identify the historical significance of the following:
“walking city”        dumbbell tenement        flophouses
suburbs            New Immigrants        “America letters”
political machines        settlement house        Florence Kelley
nativism            Am. Protective Assoc.    Dwight Moody
Fundamentalism        Modernists            “normal schools”
Jane Addams            W.E.B. Du Bois        William James
Mary Baker Eddy        Henry George        Horatio Alger
Hull House            Booker T. Washington    Mark Twain
yellow journalism        philanthropy            pragmatism
NAACP            Chatauqua movement    18th Amendment
“talented tenth”        land grant colleges        Hatch Act
Morill Act            Comstock Law        social gospel
Carnegie libraries        yellow journalism        Emily Dickinson
Carrie Chapman Catt    NAWSA            Ida B. Wells
WCTU            Buffalo Bill            James Naismith
Victoria Woodhull        Charlott Perkins Gilman    “The Metaphysical Club”
Carrie Nation        padrone system        Walter Rauschenbusch
settlement houses        Florence Kelley        Salvation Army/ YMCA
Joseph Pulitzer        Wm. Randolph Hearst    James Gibbons
John Dewey            Oliver W. Holmes        “birds of passage”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Outline the connection among the forces of industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.
— Relate and analyze the cultural conflicts over religion and values to the new social and cultural environment of the city.

Chapter 26 The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, 1865-1890
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851) reservation system        Indian Territory
Sand Creek massacre     John Chivington        Fetterman massacre
George Custer        Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868)  7th Cavalry
Little Big Horn        Chief Joseph            Sitting Bull
Geronimo            buffalo            Helen Hunt Jackson
Sun Dance            Ghost Dance            assimilation
Battle of Wounded Knee    Dawes Severalty Act    Carlisle Indian School
James Weaver        Bozeman Trail        Black Hills
Joseph Glidden        William Cody        Fifty-niners
Sioux Wars            Comstock Lode        Granger Laws
Greenback Labor Party    Homestead Act        Farmers’ Alliance
Eighty-niners        Populists            “Helldorados”
Apache            James Hickok        blizzards of 1886-7
boomers            sooners            “cow towns”
Pike’s Peakers        Cattle Kingdom        “Centennial State”
longhorns            soddies            “beef barons”
Long Drive            John Wesley Powell        barbed wire
Grange            Frederick Jackson Turner    deflation
Wabash case            Coxey’s Army        Eugene Debs
Marry Ellen Lease        J. P. Altgeld            Pullman Strike
“government by injunction”                Cross of Gold speech
William J. Bryan        16 to 1                free-silver
“Battle of ‘96”        William McKinley
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Explain the importance of the bison to the Plains tribes.  How was this dependence exploited by whites?
— Examine the various phases of economic activity in the West: mining, cattle ranching, and agriculture.  How was each era eventually dominated by big business, and why?
— Analyze the pressures leveled against the Native Americans during the last half of the 19th century through each of the following:
a) treaty and removal;
b) the reservation system;
c) allotment and assimilation.
— Explain the geographical forces which made the Dawes Act’s provision unsuitable for the great settlement push onto the Plains.
— Analyze how life in the West was particularly unique for women.
— Examine the influence of the railroads upon the lives of settlers, and outline the actions farmers attempted to take to counteract the railroads’ power.
— Outline the main points of Turner’s frontier thesis, and recent scholarship regarding this idea.

Chapter 27 Empire and Expansion, 1890-1909
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Alfred Thayer Mahan        George Dewey        James Blaine
Richard Olney            Theodore Roosevelt        jingoism
imperialism                Pan-American Conference    Rough Riders
San Juan Hill                Philippines            Cuba Libre
Foraker Act                USS Maine            Treaty of Paris
Teller Amendment            Platt Amendment        insular cases
Queen Liliuokalani            Emilio Aguinaldo        Butcher Weyler
Republic of Hawai’i            Venezuelan Crisis        Joseph Pulitzer
Sanford Dole                Great White Fleet        Guantanamo Bay
self-determination            annexation            anti-imperialism
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Analyze the deep economic conflicts of the 1890s in the context of the depression of 1893.
— Outline the basic reasons for the labor disputes of the 1890s.  Highlight the main events.  How did the government’s adherence to laissez faire became a bias toward management?  How did labor respond?

Chapter 28 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt
Identify the historical significance of the following:
progressives                 laissez-faire             Henry Demarest Lloyd
Thorsten Veblen             Jacob Riis             Theodore Dreiser
popular magazines             muckrakers             Lincoln, Steffens
Ida Tarbell                 “money trust”         David G. Phillips
Ray Stannard Baker         John Spargo             patent medicines
“Poison Squad”             direct primary         initiative
referendum                 recall                 graft
Australian ballot             17th Amendment         suffragists
city-manager system         Wisconsin             Robert La Follette
Hiram Johnson             Charles Evans Hughes     Women’s Trade Union League
National Consumers League     “wet”/”dry”         Children’s/Women’s Bureau
Florence Kelley             Muller v. Oregon         Louis Brandeis
Lochner v. New York         Triangle Shirtwaist Co.     WCTU
Frances Willard             18th Amendment         “Square Deal”
coal strike of 1902             arbitration             Dept. of Commerce and Labor
trust-busting                 Elkins Act             Hepburn Act
Northern Securities decision     William H. Taft         Upton Sinclair/ The Jungle
Meat Inspection Act         Pure Food and Drug Act     Desert Land Act
Forest Reserve Act             Carey Act             Newlands Act
Gifford Pinchot             Sierra Club/John Muir     Hetch Hetchy
environmentalists             “rational use” policy     “wilderness was waste”
“multiple use resource management”                 Bureau of Reclamation
“Roosevelt Panic”             Aldrich-Vreeland Act     William Jennings Bryan
“dollar diplomacy”             Manchurian railroad     Nicaragua
“rule of reason”             Standard Oil Co.         US Steel
“Mother of Trusts”             Payne-Aldrich Bill         Richard Ballinger
New Nationalism             Victor Berger
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Analyze the goals of the Progressive movement, using legislation for examples.
— Examine the relationship between Progressivism and previous political or reform movements.
— Outline the birth of the conservation movement under Theodore Roosevelt.  How did Roosevelt’s experiences make him amenable to conservationism?

Chapter 29 Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad, 1912-1916
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Woodrow Wilson        New Nationalism            Federal Farm Loan Act
Eugene V. Debs        New Freedom            Seaman’s Act
Louis D. Brandeis        Underwood Tariff Act        Workingmen’s
Pancho Villa            Federal Reserve Act                       Compensation Act
John J. Pershing        Federal Trade Commission        Central Powers
Kaiser Wilhelm II        Clayton Act                Allies
holding company        Adamson Act            Serbia
Lusitania            Arabic                    Sussex
“predatory” trusts        “bull moose”                Herbert Croly
Eugene V. Debs        “lone wolf”                “triple wall of privilege”
16th Amendment        Arsene Pujo                Federal Reserve Board
Federal Reserve Notes    Federal Farm Loan Act        Panama Canal Tolls Act
Jones Act            crisis with Japan, 1913        Haiti
Dominican Republic    Virgin Islands            Victoriano Huerta
Venustiano Carranza    Vera Cruz/Tampico        ABC Powers
Columbus, NM        Blood Money                JP Morgan & Co.
Sussex pledge        Charles Evans Hughes        “He Kept Us Out of War”
Richard Hofstadter        “status anxiety”            “organizational school”
“female dominion”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Assess America’s neutrality at the outset of World War I.  Consider both Wilson’s policies in regard to Britain and Germany as well as public sentiment.  Did American actions mirror American policy? Explain.
— Outline how Wilson’s attempt to promote American-style democracy in Mexico led him into military intervention and near-war.
— Analyze why Wilson found himself headed to the brink of war with Germany over the use of submarines.
— Compare and contrast Roosevelt’s New Nationalism and Wilson’s New Freedom programs.  Which seems to be the more realistic response to industrialization, and why?

Chapter 30 The War to End War, 1917-1918
Identify the historical significance of the following:
George Creel            Marshal Foch        Eugene V. Debs
Herbert Hoover        Henry Cabot Lodge        Warren G. Harding
self-determination        Zimmermann note        14 Points
IWW/”Wobblies”        League of Nations        War Industries Board
Big Four            Cmte on Pub. Info        18th Amendment
19th Amendment        Treaty of Versailles        Espionage and Sedition Acts
Bolsheviks            reparations            conscription
war-guilt clause        1919 steel strike        Great Migration
Article X            Chateau- Thierry        Influenza Epidemic of 1918
“peace without victory”    Jeannette Rankin        unrestricted submarine warfare
“four-minute men”        “Hun”            “liberty cabbage/steak”
“Big Bill” Haywood        Schenck v. United States    Bernard Baruch
“work or fight” rule        Samuel Gompers/AFL    Council of National Defense
inflation            race riots            National Women’s Party
Alice Paul            NAWSA            19th Amendment
Women’s Bureau        Sheppard-Towner Act    Food/Fuel Administration
victory gardens        concrete ships        Liberty Loan/Bond/Victory Loan
John Singer Sargent        St. Mihiel            Meuse-Argonne offensive
Alvin C. York        doughboys            “irreconcilables”
Security Treaty        Lodge reservations        “solemn referendum”
James M. Cox        Warren G. Harding        “Wilsonianism”
“zero-sum game”        “moralism/legalism”    “imperialism of free trade”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Evaluate and explain Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and explain how this great plan was received in both America and Europe.  Which were successfully achieved and which were not? Why?
— Analyze the opposition to the Versailles treaty and the League.  Why did the United States fail to join the League?  Consider the roles of Wilson and Lodge, and their antipathy toward each other, in your response.
— President Wilson observed that women’s suffrage was “a vitally necessary war measure.”  Why?
— Assess the significance of Wilson’s idealism on
a) his call for American entry into WWI;
b) his Fourteen Points;
c) his campaign for American membership in the League of Nations.

Chapter 31 American Life in the “Roaring Twenties,” 1919-1929
Identify the historical significance of the following:
A. Mitchell Palmer        Al Capone            John Dewey
H. L. Mencken        Bruce Barton            Sigmund Freud
Andrew Mellon        Henry Ford            Andrew Mellon
John T. Scopes        Frederick W. Taylor        Frank Lloyd Wright
William Jennings Bryan    Charles Lindbergh        William Faulkner
Clarence Darrow        Margaret Sanger        Ernest Hemigway
nativist            buying on margin        red scare
Sacco and Vanzetti case    Immigration Quota Act    flappers
Ku Klux Klan        F. Scott Fitzgerald        Florida land boom
Emergency Quota Act    Volstead Act            Billy Sunday
closed/open shop        Anglo-Saxon            Immigration Act of 1924
speakeasies            Horace Kallen/pluralism    Randolph Bourne/cosmopolitanism
moonshiners            “G-men”            bootleggers
Al Capone            “Public Enemy No. 1”    “Monkey trial”
organized crime        John Dewey            blues/ jazz
Clarence Darrow        Fundamental    ism        Mass consumption
George H. Ruth        Buying on credit        The Man Nobody Knows
Ford/Olds            H. L. Mencken        assembly line/mass production
Model T            Wright Brothers        Alice Paul
Marconi            KDKA            Thomas Edison
Great Train Robbery        Birth of a Nation        The Jazz Singer
Langston Hughes        Marcus Garvey/UNIA    Sinclair Lewis
Pound/ Eliot/ Frost        Greenwich Village        Harlem renaissance
Equal Rights Amendment                    tax reduction
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Explain the significance of the case of Gitlow v. New York (1925), which is alluded to on p. 721. You will have to use outside sources.
— Analyze the turning inward of American society as a response to the disillusionment in the aftermath of WWI.
— Discuss the conflicts between religion and science that shook America in the 1920s, using the Scopes trial as a metaphor or example.  In what ways is this conflict still resonating today?
— Examine the economic and social consequences of the development of the economic trend of mass consumption.

Chapter 32 The Politics of Boom and Bust, 1920-1932
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Warren Harding        Albert B. Fall                John Davis
Charles Evans Hughes    Harry Daugherty            Robert LaFollette
Andrew Mellon        Charles Forbes            Alfred E. Smith
Herbert Hoover        Calvin Coolidge            “Ohio Gang”
farm block            Reconstruction Finance Corp.    Dawes Plan
Washington Conference    Bonus Army                “black gold”
Muller v. Oregon        Adkins v. Children’s Hospital    American Legion
Nine-Power Treaty        Kellogg-Briand Pact            Teapot Dome
McNary-Haugen Bill    Progressive Party            moratorium
“noble experiment”        Federal Farm Board            “Black Tuesday”
Hoovervilles            Muscle Shoals Bill            Stimson doctrine
“debt knot”            “wheat belt”                Capper-Volstead Act
Andrew Mellon        Adkins v. Children’s Hospital    Fordney-McCumber Tariff
“farm bloc”            “honest little Finland”        Hoovercrats
Agricultual Marketing Act    “rugged individualism”        “trickle-down”
Hoover Dam            Reconstruction Finance Corp.    Adjusted Compensation Act
Veterans Bureau        steel strike- 1919            Nicaragua
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Contrast the corrupt Harding with the upright Coolidge and Hoover.  How did each president represent the ideals of the probusiness 1920s in his own way?
–Outline the social and political conditions in the 1920s which led to the Great Depression.  Did the Republican party fail to react?

Chapter 33 The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1933-1939
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Franklin D. Roosevelt        Father Coughlin            George Norris
Eleanor Roosevelt            Huey Long                John L. Lewis
Harry Hopkins            Harold Ickes                New Deal
Public Works Administration    National Labor Relations Board    “Brain Trust”
Agricultural Adjustment Act    Congress of Industrial Orgs    Dust Bowl
Hundred Days            Glass-Steagall Act            Liberty League
Securities & Exchange Comm.    Tennessee Valley Authority    “managed currency”
Roosevelt coalition            Civilian Conservation Corps    20th Amendment
Federal Housing Authority    20st Amendment            Social Security Act
Works Progress Administration    Wagner Act                National Recovery Act
Schechter case            Agricultural Adjustment Act    “three Rs”
Federal Emergency Relief Act    “Share Our Wealth”            Frances Perkins
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act                Okies
Indian Reorganization Act        John Collier                San Joaquin Valley
Alf Landon                Fair Labor Standards Act        Court-packing scheme
Hatch Act                subversives                Emergency Congress
21st Amendment            “forgotten man”            “half-way revolution”
Alan Brinkley            Lizabeth Cohen            Carl Degler
“Roosevelt recession”        John Maynard Keynes        Hatch Act
Court-packing plan            Memorial Day massacre        sit-down strike
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Describe the impact of Roosevelt and the New Deal upon America.
— Examine the goals and activities of the major New Deal programs.
— Analyze the costs and benefits to the American people by the massive spending engendered by the New Deal. What effects did this spending have?
— Respond to the following statement: “Roosevelt went too far in correcting the flaws of capitalism and laissez-faire.  In creating his New Deal programs, he undermined the traditions of the Protestant work ethic and rugged individualism, which had been the bedrock of American society.”

Chapter 34 Franklin Roosevelt and the Shadow of War, 1933-1941
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Cordell Hull                Adolf Hitler            Charles Lindbergh
Joseph Stalin                Francisco Franco        Wendell Wilkie
Benito Mussolini            Winston Churchill        totalitarianism
isolationism                Neutrality Acts        Neville Chamberlain
lend-lease                appeasement            Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
Spanish Civil War            Nazis                Quarantine speech
America First Committee        Atlantic Charter        fascism
“merchants of death”        “cash-and-carry”        Nye committee
“phony war”                Nonaggression Pact        Munich Pact
Tydings-McDuffie Act        “Good Neighbor” policy    London Economic Conference
“Colossus of the North”        nonintervention        Rome-Berlin Axis
Tripartite Pact            Ethiopia            Johnson Debt-Default Act
Panay                    Sudentenland        Dunkirk
Lebensraum                conscription            Havana Conference
Battle of Britain            “Fortress America”        Cmte to Defend Am by Aiding Allies
Destroyer Deal            Reuben James            “Black Sunday”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Explain the causes of American isolationism in the 1930s, and trace the reasons for the disintegration of this isolationism.
— Describe the fierce debates between internationalists and isolationists, especially between 1939 and 1941.
— Examine whether America could maintain a policy of isolationism in light of her previous imperialism.

Chapter 35 America in World War II, 1941-1945
Identify the historical significance of the following:
ABC-1                “Double V”            Office of Price Administration
Smith-Connelly Act        baby boomers        merchant marine
“warfare-welfare state”    Enigma            Detroit race riot
saboteurs            internment camps        War Production Board
Issei                Nissei                black market
Smith-Conally Act        WAACS            WAVES
SPARS            GI                “Rosie the Riveter”
Sunbelt            A. Philip Randolph        Fair Employment Practices Comm.
braceros            CORE                code talkers
zoot-suit riots        OSRD                Bataan/Corregidor
Douglas MacArthur        Battle of the Coral Sea    Chester Nimitz
Battle of Midway        Guadalcanal            leapfrogging
wolf packs            “Desert Fox”            Bernard Montgomery
Stalingrad            Dwight Eisenhower        Casablanca Conference
unconditional surrender    Teheran            D-Day
Aachen            George S. Patton        underground
Thomas E. Dewey        Henry A. Wallace        Battle of the Bulge
Harry S. Truman        V-E Day            Okinawa
kamikazes            “soft underbelly”        Potsdam Conference
Hiroshima            Nagasaki            USS Missouri
Korematsu v. US        V-J Day            Executive Order No. 9066
B-29s                Saipan                “silent service”
El Alamein            Big Two            “Marianas Turkey Shoot”
Potsdam            Jiang Jeshi            Anzio
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Explain how the decision to seek unconditional surrender of Germany was a potentially controversial decision. Outline the basic strategy used to defeat Hitler.
— Explain why Germany was the first target of the allies.  What particular danger did Hitler pose by the time America entered the war?
— Explain the reasons an invasion of Japan was so widely feared, and demonstrate what effect this fear had on the creation of an atomic bomb.

Chapter 36 The Cold War Begins, 1945-1952
Identify the historical significance of the following:
subversives            Gross National Product        “Operation Dixie”
Taft-Hartley Act        Servicemen’s Readjustment Act    Harry S. Truman
George F. Kennan        Douglas MacArthur            Dean Acheson
Joseph McCarthy        The Rosenbergs            Strom Thurmond
Henry Wallace        Thomas Dewey            Adlai Stevenson
Dwight Eisenhower        Richard M. Nixon            Yalta Conference
United Nations        Nuremberg trials            iron curtain
Berlin airlift            containment doctrine        Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan        National Security Act        NATO
McCarran Act        Point Four program            Fair Deal
NSC-68            House Committee on Un-American Activities
Dennis v. United States    States’ Rights Party (Dixiecrats)    “Grand Alliance”
“missionary diplomacy”    “sphere of influence”        World Bank
IMF                “Missouri Gang”            UN Conferencec
Big Five Powers        UNESCO                WHO
satellite nations        Reinhold Niebuhr            George C. Marshall
European Community    Joint Chiefs of Staff            Israel
“Voice of America”        Central Intelligence Agency    National Security Agency
Mao Zedong            Jiang Jeshi                Japanese constitution of 1946
Taiwan            H-bomb                Smith Act 1940
HUAC            loyalty oaths/program        J. Strom Thurmond
Progressive party        “dollar imperialism            Housing Act 1949
38th parallel            “police action”            “limited war”
Be able to explain the following fully:
–Outline the major events in the development of the Cold War.  What responsibility does the US bear for the development of tension?  What responsibility does the Soviet Union bear?
— Analyze the effects of the Cold War on the home front, highlighting the anticommunist “witch hunt.”
— Explain the development and application of the policy of containment, using the Marshall Plan, Truman Doctrine, NATO and the Korean Conflict.

Chapter 37 The Eisenhower Era, 1952-1960
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Dwight Eisenhower        Joseph McCarthy            Earl Warren
Rosa Parks            Martin Luther King, Jr.        Ho Chi Minh
Ngo Dinh Diem        Gamal Abdel Nasser        Nikita Krushchev
Fidel Castro            McCarthyism            “creeping socialism”
desegregation        “massive retaliation”        military-industrial complex
Brown v. Board of Ed.        Plessy v. Ferguson            Civil Rights Act of 1957
Geneva Conference        SEATO                Hungarian revolt
Suez crisis            Eisenhower Doctrine        Strategic Air Command
U-2 incident            Sputnik I and II            “missile gap”
National Defense Education Act                    SNCC
braceros            “New Look”                John Foster Dulles
televangelists        John Kenneth Galbraith        Betty Friedan
“pink-collar ghetto”        information age            Adlai Stevenson
“Checkers” speech        purges                Lonely Crowd/Organization Man/etc.
Gunnar Myerdal        Jackie Robinson            NAACP
Thurgood Marshall        Sweatt v. Painter            Jim Crow statutes
“To Secure These Rights”    Central High School            “Dec of Constitutional Principles’
sit-ins                termination (and relocation)    Interstate Highway Act 1956
“New Look”            John Foster Dulles            “spirit of Geneva”
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi    “oil weapon”                Teamsters
NASA                coup in Guatemala            John F. Kennedy
Kennedy/Nixon debates    Fulgencio Batista            Paris conference
“kitchen debate”        22nd Amendment            Alaska/Hawai’i
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Compare and contrast Eisenhower’s responses to domestic affairs (McCarthyism, civil rights) with his handling of foreign policy (Castro, Hungary, Vietnam).  In which area was he more successful?  Why do you think this was so?
— Outline the ways in which Joseph McCarthy manipulated his colleagues, his president, and the American public.  Why was he so powerful?  How did he finally meet his downfall?
— What types of covert activities was the CIA involved in during the 1950s?

Chapter 38 The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968
Identify the historical significance of the following:
John F. Kennedy        Robert F. Kennedy            Robert S. McNamara
Medgar Evers        Martin Luther King, Jr.        Lee Harvey Oswald
Lyndon Baines Johnson    Barry Goldwater            Malcolm X
Stokely Carmichael        J. William Fulbright            Eugene McCarthy
Hubert H. Humphrey    Richard M. Nixon            George Wallace
flexible response        peaceful coexistence            “nuclear chicken”
Peace Corps            Viet Cong                Alliance for Progress
Bay of Pigs            War on Poverty            domino theory
Great Society            Tonkin Gulf Resolution        Civil Rights Act of 1964
Cuban missile crisis        March on Washington        24th Amendment
Voting Rights Act 1965    Operation Rolling Thunder    Pueblo incident
Tet offensive            counterculture            Berlin Wall
“Atlantic Community”    EEOC                    Freedom Summer
entitlements            Nation of Islam            “Black Power”
Six Day War            affirmative action            “New Frontier”
Kennedy Round        Charles de Gaulle            Common Market/ European Union
Laos                “brushfire wars”            military advisors
“modernization theory”    Walt Rostow                quarantine
civil rights address 1963    détente                Freedom Riders
James Meredith        Birmingham                Medgar Evers
Title VII            HUD                    Nat’l Endowment for Arts
Medicare/Medicaid        Project Head Start            Miss. Freedom Dem. Party
SNCC                Black Panther Party            PLO
“credibility gap”        hawks/doves            Cointelpro
Am Independent Party    Mattachine Society            The Pill
SDS                communes                “tuning out”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Explain the escalation of American involvement in Vietnam under Kennedy and Johnson, and highlight the domestic impact of the war.  How did the doctrine of “flexible response” influence US actions.
— Analyze Kennedy’s response to Cold War crises, especially those dealing with Cuba and Russia.  What were the effects of the heightened tension and fears of nuclear war?
–Evaluate and compare the presidency of Johnson with that of Kennedy.
— Compare and contrast the Great Society with the New Deal.
— Examine the movements for minority rights in the 1960s, from civil rights to black power and the American Indian Movement.  Which movements were most successful—those who supported non-violence, or those who advocated using “any means necessary?”

Chapter 39 The Stalemated Seventies, 1968-1980
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Richard Nixon            Spiro Agnew            Henry Kissinger
Earl Warren                Warren Burger        George McGovern
Sam Erwin                John Dean            Gerald Ford
Jimmy Carter            shah of Iran            Ayatollah Khomeini
détente                impoundment        revenue sharing
executive privilege            Vietnamization        Nixon Doctrine
My Lai                Cambodia            Kent State
26th Amendment            Pentagon Papers        ABM Treaty
SALT    (I and II)            “southern strategy”        Watergate
Saturday Night Massacre        War Powers Act        energy crisis
Helsinki accords            Engel v. Vitale        OPEC
Iranian hostage crisis        Griswold v. Connecticut    oil embargo/”oil shocks”
Camp David agreement        1980 Olympic boycott    Panama Canal Treaty
“liberal establishment”        “China card”            Salvador Allende
Augusto Pinochet            Gideon v. Wainwright    Escobedo v. Illinois
Miranda v. Arizona            AFDC                Abingdon Township v. Schempp
SSI                    Philadelphia Plan        Griggs v. Duke Power Co.
reverse discrimination        affirmative action        EPA/Clean Air Act
Rachel Carson            Endangered Species Act    “peace with honor”
“New Isolationism”            CREEP            International Energy Agency
“dirty tricks”                Spiro Agnew            25th Amendment
Watergate affair            House Judiciary Cmte    “smoking gun”
feminists                ERA                Title IX
Phyllis Schlafly            US v. Wheeler            Reed v. Reed/ Frontiero v. Richardson
Bakke decision            Anwar Sadat            Menachem Begin
Afghanistan                US embargo to USSR
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Assess the influence of economic factors on the domestic situation during the 1970s, including the energy crisis.
— Evaluate the impact of the Warren Court on American life, highlighting important cases and their consequences.
— Describe the end of American involvement in Vietnam.  How has the experience in Vietnam continued to influence American policy?
— Analyze and critique Nixon’s performance as a president.
— Evaluate the impact the Nixon years had on America.  Emphasize the causes and effects of the Watergate scandal.

Chapter 40 The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-1996
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Jimmy Carter            Edward Kennedy            Ronald Reagan
James Watt                John Anderson            Anwar Sadat
Walter Mondale            Gary Hart                Jesse Jackson
Gerraldine Ferrarro            Sandra Day O’Connor        affirmative action
“Supply-side” economics        reverse discrimination        Moral Majority
Chappaquiddick            Reaganomics                Solidarity
Lech Walesa                Grenada invasion            yuppies
SDI                    Roe v. Wade                Milliken v. Bradley
“neoconservatives”            Bakke v. Board of Regents        Jeanne Kirkpatrick
Iran- contra                Sandinistas                glasnost
perestroika                “Teflon president”            “Sagebrush rebellion”
“morning in America”        “Old Right”/New Right”        “social engineering”
“ABC movement”            Proposition 13            John Anderson
“big-government”            “tight money” policies        Reagan recession
“window of vulnerability”        Strategic Defense Initiative        Olympic boycott
Lebanon                Sandinistas                El Salvador
INF                    “evil empire”            Mikhail Gorbachev
“revenue hole”            “welfare state”            Jerry Falwell
“identity politics”            Webster and Casey decisions    S&L failures
“Black Monday”            “rainbow coalition”            Michael Dukakis
George H. W. Bush            Tienanmen Square            Boris Yeltsin
Commonwealth of Ind. States    START II                Nelson Mandela
Manuel Noriega            Operation Desert Storm        Norman Schwarzkopf
ADA                    Clarence Thomas            Anita Hill
“gender gap”            Richard Hofstadter            George Will
Be able to explain the following fully:
–Analyze the successes and failures of Ronald Reagan in achieving his goals as stated at the start of his presidency.  Why was Reagan called the “Teflon president” by some opponents?
— Explain the revival of the Cold War in the 1980s.  How did the Cold War end?  How much credit should Ronald Reagan receive in causing the fall of Communism is the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc?  Why do you think this happened?
— How did the new conservatism affect social issues in the US during the 1980s?  Was this a backlash against the liberality of the 1960s and 1970s? Explain.
–Compare the presidencies of Reagan and Clinton.

Some practice MC questions

These were revised as of 1:30 pm on December 17

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was a significant achievement because it
A. land claim to all of North America east of the Mississippi River.
B. represented one of the rare successes of diplomacy between the United States government and American Indians.
C. defined the process by which territories could become states.
D. opened all territories west of the states to slavery.
E. was the only piece of legislation to pass through Congress under the Articles of Confederation.

Reform movements during the first half of the nineteenth century attempted to accomplish all of the following EXCEPT
A. convince people not to drink alcohol.
B. bring about an end to slavery.
C. rehabilitate criminals.
D. induce humane treatment for the mentally ill.
E. widen the division between church and state.

Match each entrepreneur with the business area with which he is primarily identified.
X. Andrew Carnegie_______1. steel
Y. John D. Rockefeller_____2. oil
Z. J. Pierpont Morgan _____3. textiles
_______________________4. banking
A. X-1, Y-3, Z-2
B. X-2, Y-4, Z-3
C. X-3, Y-1, Z-4
D. X-1, Y-2, Z-4
E. X-1, Y-4, Z-3

The major problem of the election of 1876 was
A. who would be Speaker of the House.
B. the two sets of election returns submitted by three Southern states.
C. Samuel Tilden’s association with corrupt politicians.
D. President Grant’s campaign for a third term.
E. the lack of a strong candidate for either party.

The most significant aspect of the Mexican-American War on the United States during the 20 years following the war was that it
A. led to the development of the idea of “passive resistance” among those who opposed the war.
B. ended years of hostility between the United States and Mexico.
C. revealed the shocking ineptitude of American military forces, leading to massive reforms in military training and procedures throughout the 1850s.
D. gave America undisputed control over Mexican foreign policy for the next 20 years.
E. reignited the slavery conflict in regards to all the territories newly acquired from Mexico.

The Free Soil movement supported the exclusion of slavery from the territories because of
A. its belief in racial justice.
B. its desire to dominate the political process.
C. the abundance of land which was unsuited for plantation agriculture..
D. its belief in the immorality of slavery.
E. racial prejudice and fear of labor competition from slaves.

The “South Carolina Exposition” was
A. an attempt to destroy the Union by a former vice president.
B. a pamphlet that advocated manifest destiny and imperialism.
C. a pamphlet that advocated nullification of a federal tariff.
D. a fair celebrating the creation of Kentucky.
E. a resolution demanding freedom of religion as well as the right to practice no religion whatsoever.

That the Southern states were “conquered provinces” and therefore at the mercy of Congress for readmission to the Union was the view of
A. War Democrats. D. President Lincoln.
B. congressional Republicans. E. President Johnson.
C. the Supreme Court.

The Gadsden Purchase was made in order to enable
A. a transcontinental railroad line to be built in the South.
B. Santa Anna to remain in power in Mexico.
C. the St. Louis Cardinals football team to move to Arizona in 1988, thereby completing a plot to make Arizonans understand what it’s like to lose. This season, LA feels the same way about us.
D. the US to then trade the land for Cuba.
E. Mexico to pay off its debts to American citizens.

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was used from 1890 to 1910 primarily to curb the power of
A. manufacturing corporations. D. labor unions.
B. state legislatures. E. political machines.
C. railroad corporations.

The “cult of domesticity”
A. gave women more opportunity to seek employment outside the home.
B. resulted in a higher birth rate for women.
C. meant that women had legal status only under the protection of a man.
D. encouraged women to work in female occupations such as cook or maid.
E. idealized women’s influence on the home while discouraging outside interests.

In the late 19th century, political candidates who “waved the bloody shirt” were reminding voters
A. of the “treason” of the Confederate Democrats during the Civil War.
B. that the Civil War had been caused by the election of a Republican president.
C. of the graft-filled “radical” regimes in the Reconstruction South.
D. that Radical Republicans catered to freed slaves during Reconstruction.
E. that the Ku Klux Klan was operating with the approval of Southern Democrats.

Thomas Paine argued that all government officials
A. were corrupt.
B. should derive their authority from popular consent.
C. should be part of the “natural aristocracy.”
D. need not listen to the voice of the uneducated.
E. should not be paid for their service

The main purpose of the Freedman’s Bureau was to
A. gain the vote for the freed slave
B. provide forty acres and a mule for each slave
C. get Radical Republicans in positions of power in the South
D. feed, adjust, and educate the former slaves
E. work against the Black Codes

The Second Great Awakening tended to
A. promote Biblical literalism but support social progressivism.
B. reduce the difference between social classes.
C. influence mainline religious denominations more than society at large.
D. discourage church membership.
E. emphasize rationalism over faith.

In general, ____ tended to bind the West and South together, while _____ and _____ connected West to East.
A. steamboats, canals, railroads D. turnpikes, steamboats, canals
B. railroads, canals, steamboats E. turnpikes, railroads, steamboats
C. canals, steamboats, turnpikes

The Compromise of 1877 resulted in
A. a renewal of the Republican commitment to protect black civil rights in the South.
B. the election of a Republican as president in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South.
C. the election of a Democrat to the presidency for the first time since 1856.
D. passage of the Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act.
E. the beginning of American imperialism in the Caribbean.

“Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace—but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?”
The author of the above excerpt is
A. John Hancock.                D. Patrick Henry.
B. Nathan Hale.                E. John Adams
C. Thomas Jefferson.

The next line of the above excerpt is
A. “If this be treason, let us make the most of it.”
B. “Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”
C. “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.”
D. “To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man, to surrender the rights of humanity and even its duties.”
E. “Even God himself is on our side, and therefore, how can we fail?”

The main purpose of the post-Civil War Black Codes was
A. guarantee freedom for the blacks.
B. ensure a stable labor supply after the end of slavery.
C. allow blacks to have the right to marry.
D. prevent blacks from becoming sharecroppers.
E. prevent blacks from being free to move around the country at will.

The Mexican War resulted in all of the following EXCEPT
A. a one-third increase in the size of the US.
B. combat experience for many of the officers who would serve in the Civil War.
C. increased respect for American military capabilities.
D. friendlier relations between the US and Latin American nations.
E. increased tension between the North and the South over the expansion of slavery.

Shays’ Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for
A. lower taxes.
B. granting long-delayed bonuses to Revolutionary War veterans.
C. a vigilante effort by westerners to halt the Indian threat.
D. a stronger central government.
E. a weaker military presence in the West.

The growth of the oil industry in the late 19th century led to a severe downturn in what other industry?
A. kerosene production D. railroads
B. coal E. steel
C. whaling

For Congressional Republicans in the late 1860s, one of the most troubling aspects of the Southern states’ restoration to the Union was that
A. the South, with each black counted as a full person, would be stronger than ever in national politics.
B. inexperienced Southern politicians would be elected, causing chaos in Congress.
C. blacks might be elected to Congress, and Washington was in Southern territory.
D. a high tariff might be reinstituted, harming booming Northern industries.
E. Southern representatives might attempt to obstruct the transcontinental railroad.

Radical Republican state governments
A. did little of value.
B. passed much desirable legislation and badly needed reforms.
C. were more corrupt than Northern state governments.
D. had all their reforms repealed by all-white “redeemer” governments.
E. collapsed before the end of the 1860s due to lack of tax revenue.

Ownership of workers’ homes, payment in scrip, ownership of grocery stores, and deductions from wages for rent were all characteristics of
A. company towns.
B. socialist experiments in the Midwest.
C. utopian communities like the Oneida community.
D. political machines.
E. laissez-faire economics.

Most women workers in the 1890s worked for
A. independence. D. personal fulfillment.
B. glamour. E. all of the above.
C. economic necessity.

During our first 25 years as a nation, one of the major problems facing America was
A. the rivalry between France and Great Britain.
B. the lack of good political leadership.
C. the continued fighting between the US and the Armed Neutrality League.
D. Indian affairs.
E. separation of church and state.

Radical congressional Reconstruction of the South ended when
A. the Southern states ratified the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
B. federal troops were removed.
C. President Johnson was not reelected in 1868.
D. the Supreme Court ruled in Ex parte Milligan that military tribunals could not try civilians.
E. Democrats regained control of Southern state governments.

Study questions for final exam

Study questions for Final Exam

These will concentrate more upon earlier information because I expect you to be more familiar with material we have recently covered in class.

1. Why did Irish and southern European immigrants to America in the 19th century tend to settle in cities?
2. How were the reform movements of the early 19th century influenced by the growth of the middle class?
3. How did the transportation revolution in the early 19th century lead to the development of a market revolution, especially when combined with the development of the factory system? How did construction of the Erie Canal affect New England farmers?
4. What were the main demands made at the Seneca Falls Convention?
5. What factors reinforced women’s subordination throughout the 19th century?
6. What caused the outbreak of utopian experiments in 19th century America? Why did so few of these experiments succeed?
7. What were the main tenets of transcendentalism, and what impact did this movement’s ideas have upon American culture?
8. Compare the causes of the First and Second Great Awakenings.
9. What factors caused the creation of a dynamic, market oriented national economy in the 19th century?
10. What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, and how successfully were those weaknesses addressed in the US Constitution?
11. What were the main ways in which the Puritans (and Separatists) disagreed with the Church of England?
12. How did the doctrine of “the elect” contribute to the concept of American exceptionalism that has influenced American society since the founding of European settlement in America?
13. How has the scarcity of labor impacted the development of America?
14. What were the differences between the First and Second Continental Congresses?
15. How was the Revolutionary War financed, and what impact did this have upon the early years of the Republic?
16. How did the theories of Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Hobbes influence revolutionary sentiment and the creation of the federal government?
17. “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; and among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” How egalitarian was early American society?
18. What were early political attitudes toward democracy during the colonial period, and how did these attitudes evolve by the time of the administration of Andrew Jackson? How democratic was the Constitution?
19. How was the concept of Manifest Destiny developed, and what impact did it have?
20. How did Southern apologists justify the continued existence of slavery in the antebellum period?
21. How did issues regarding interpretation of the Constitution lead to the development of political parties?
22. Describe the varieties of opinion regarding slavery in the North and West during the antebellum period.
23. How did the problem of unity among the colonies and later the states and sections create difficulties in the development of America, especially in reference to politics and economy?
24. Why did Reconstruction fail?
25. What economic impact did the Civil War have upon the North, the South, and the West?

Study Guide Semester 1 exam

Study Guide
AP US Semester 1 Exam

Colonial period:
reasons for settlement ___________Washington’s presidency
Puritans_____________________ Hamilton’s plan/ 1st Bank US
Separatists___________________Hamilton/Jefferson dispute
William Penn_________________ factionalism
James Oglethorpe______________Washington’s Farewell Address
Jamestown__________________ Neutrality Proclamation
Mayflower Compact ____________Alien & Sedition Acts
First Great Awakening__________Republicans/ Federalists
Bacon’s Rebellion______________Va./Ky. Resolutions
Treaty of Tordesillas____________XYZ Affair
Relations with England: ________Jefferson/ republicanism
mercantilism __________________agrarian ideal
Stamp Act_____________________acquisition of Miss. R.
Declaratory Act _________________Louisiana purchase
Intolerable Acts_________________Aaron Burr
methods of resistance____________ assimilation 5 Civilized Tribes
French/Indian War______________War of 1812- causes/effects
Albany Congress________________Treaty of Ghent
Proclamation of 1763_____________Hartford Convention/ Blue Light Feds.
Common Sense _________________ 2nd Great Awakening
Dec. of Ind.____________________Transcendentalism (Emerson, Thoreau)
Lexington & Concord_____________Reform Movements
Saratoga______________________Immigrant groups
Yorktown_____________________Jackson/ Jacksonian Dem.
Treaty of Paris___________ ______Maysville Road veto
Lord Dunmore’s Ethiopian Rgt______2nd Bank US
Early Republic:______________Specie Circular
Articles of Confederation__________ Trail of Tears
weaknesses, strengths____________Territorial Expansion:
NW Ordinance _________________ Northwest Terr.
Federalists_____________________Louisiana Purchase
Antifederalists__________________ Mexican Cession/ controversy
Constitution____________________Texas independence/annexation
branches of govt.________________ Gadsden Purchase
writ of habeas corpus_____________Oregon Question
ex post facto laws________________Panic of 1837
full faith and credit clause _________ Erie Canal
strict, loose constructionism________ Mexican War/ significance
Bill of Rights ___________________nullification/ S. Carolina Exposition
Great Compromise_______________John C. Calhoun

states’ rights___________________Daniel Webster

_____________________________Henry Clay

abolitionists: Lovejoy, Garrison, Harriet B. Stowe
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Compromises: Missouri, 1850, Crittenden
Wilmot Proviso
Fugitive Slave Law
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Bleeding Kansas
popular sovereignty
Stephen Douglas
Lecompton Constitution
John Brown

Civil War:
Abraham Lincoln
1st Bull Run/Antietam
Emancipation Proclamation
Border States
weaknesses/strengths of each side
draft/ manpower issues

Compromise of 1877
Black Codes
whitewashed rebels
Presidential Reconstruction
Congressional Reconstruction
Military Reconstruction
KKK/Force Bill
13-15 Amendments and arguments over them
Radical Republicans
Tenure in Office Act
New View of Reconstruction/Foner

Gilded Age:
growth of Railroads/ construction/ Credit Mobilier
Corruption/ Pendleton Act/ political machines
Carnegie/ Rockefeller
Unionization: trade vs. umbrella unions
Railroad Strike 1877/Homestead Strike. Haymarket Affair
vertical/horizontal integration
Sherman Act of 1890

Court issues:
Peter Zenger case
John Marshall
Marbury v.Madison
Dred Scott v. Sanford

Class assignment from December 5

For those of you gallivanting around with the debate team. or sick, or both….

1. Read the excerpts from the Mississippi Black Code of 1866 and the Wade-Davis Manifesto– these are waaay down this page AND in the chapter 22 archives.

How do the two relate to each other? Why were Radical Republicans outraged by Presidential Reconstruction and its leniency, given the example of the Black Code as an example of egregious behavior on the part of what they termed “whitewashed rebels?”

2. Write a 1 page (250 word minimum) comparison between Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction. At the end of your analysis, explain why you think Reconstruction failed. Use the two documents above, as well as information from chapter 23 (Compromise of 1877, especially!!!!!!) to add detail to your analysis. This will be worked on in class on Monday after the terms check and due on Tuesday at the beginning of class!!!!!

3. Remember, Chapter 23 is due on Monday, and you have a terms check. There will be no debate about this (snort!).

Chapter 23 terms and comprehension questions

These are due on Monday, December 8!


Ulysses S. Grant ___________greenbacks____________ “Ohio Idea”
“waving the bloody shirt”_____repudiation_____________speculation
Jay Cooke________________“Black Friday”___________Chester Arthur
William Belknap___________general amnesty act_______Panic of 1873
contraction_______________Half-Breeds___________Civil Rights Act/Cases
tenant farming____________crop lien system _______“equal protection clause”
Roscoe Conkling__________Jim Fisk______________Grover Cleveland
Jay Gould _______________Rutherford Hayes_______James Garfield
cheap money_____________hard/sound money______Gilded Age
spoils system____________Resumption Act_________Stalwart
Tweed Ring_______________Whiskey Ring________Greenback Labor Party
Compromise of 1877_________Pendleton Act________Liberal Republicans
Blank- Allison Act__________Credit Mobilier___________Tammany Hall
great railroad strike _______Chinese Exclusion Act _______Mugwumps
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Analyze the corruption of the Gilded Age in relation to the increasingly low moral and political standards of the time. Contrast the quality of politicians with those of the previous age.
— Examine the presidential elections of the period in relation to the fierce competition of the third party system.
— Trace the history of the Fourteenth Amendment. Why is it one of the most significant parts of the Constitution?

The Wade- Davis Manifesto: Republican Response to Lincoln’s veto of Wade-Davis

Question for Understanding:
1. How does this response indicate an assertion of Congress of its prerogative over wartime presidential power?

The Wade-Davis Manifesto, August 5, 1864

We have read without surprise, but not without indignation, the Proclamation of the President of the 8th of July.

The President, by preventing this bill from becoming a law, holds the electoral votes of the Rebel States at the dictation of his personal ambition.

If those votes turn the balance in his favor, is it to be supposed that his competitor, defeated by such means will acquiesce?

If the Rebel majority assert their supremacy in those States, and send votes which elect an enemy of the Government, will we not repel his claims?
And is not that civil war for the Presidency, inaugurated by the votes of Rebel States?

Seriously impressed with these dangers, Congress, “the proper constitutional authority,” formally declared that there are no State Governments in the Rebel States, and provided for their erection at a proper time; and both the Senate and the House of Representatives rejected the Senators and Representatives chosen under the authority of what the President calls the Free Constitution and Government of Arkansas.

The President’s proclamation “holds for naught” this judgment, and discards the authority of the Supreme Court, and strides headlong toward the anarchy his Proclamation of the 8th of December inaugurated.

If electors for President be allowed to be chosen in either of those States, a sinister light will be cast on the motives which induced the President to “hold for naught” the will of Congress rather than his Government in Louisiana and Arkansas.

That judgment of Congress which the President defies was the exercise of an authority exclusively vested in Congress by the Constitution to determine what is the established Government in a State, and in its own nature and by the highest judicial authority binding on all other departments of the Government.
A more studied outrage on the legislative authority of the people has never been perpetrated.

Congress passed a bill; the President refused to approve it, and then by proclamation puts as much of it in force as he sees fit, and proposes to execute those parts by officers unknown to the laws of the United States and not subject to the confirmation of the Senate!

The bill directed the appointment of Provisional Governors by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

The President, after defeating the law, proposes to appoint without law, and without the advice and consent of the Senate, Military Governors for the Rebel States!

He has already exercised this dictatorial usurpation in Louisiana, and he defeated the bill to prevent its limitation.

The President has greatly presumed on the forbearance which the supporters of his Administration have so long practiced, in view of the arduous conflict in which we are engaged, and the reckless ferocity of our political opponents.
But he must understand that our support is of a cause and not of a man; that the authority of Congress is paramount and must be respected; that the whole body of the Union men of Congress will not submit to be impeached by him of rash and unconstitutional legislation; and if he wishes our support, he must confine himself to his executive duties-to obey and execute, not make the laws-to suppress by arms armed Rebellion, and leave political reorganization to Congress.

If the supporters of the Government fail to insist on this, they become responsible for the usurpations which they fail to rebuke, and are justly liable to the indignation of the people whose rights and security, committed to their keeping, they sacrifice.

Let them consider the remedy for these usurpations, and, having found it, fearlessly execute it.

Vocabulary for this post:

Mississippi Black Code, 1866

The status of the Negro was the focal problem of Reconstruction. Slavery had been abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment, but the white people of the South were determined to keep the Negro in his place, socially, politically, and economically. This was done by means of the notorious “Black Codes,” passed by several of the state legislatures Northerners regarded these codes as a revival of slavery in disguise. The first such body of statutes, and probably the harshest, was passed in Mississippi in November 1865. Four of the statutes that made up the code are reprinted below.

As you read, find the answers for the following questions:
1. Summarize the provisions and goals of each of the four articles in this law.
2. Evaluate the intent of laws like this. How would Radical Republicans have viewed this type of legislation.
3. Under what circumstances could an African American have been forced to labor without his or her consent?
4. What does the language and terminology used in this law reveal about the attitudes of the lawmakers who wrote it?
5. What does “miscegenation” mean? Look it up. What part of this law deals with miscegenation?

I. Apprentice Law
Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that it shall be the duty of all sheriffs, justices of the peace, and other civil officers of the several counties in this state to report to the Probate courts of their respective counties semiannually, at the January and July terms of said courts, all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes under the age of eighteen within their respective counties, beats, or districts who are orphans, or whose parent or parents have not the means, or who refuse to provide for and support said minors; and thereupon it shall be the duty of said Probate Court to order the clerk of said court. to apprentice said minors to some competent and suitable person, on such terms as the court may direct, having a particular care to the interest of said minors:
—–Provided, that the former owner of said minors shall have the preference when, in the opinion of the court, he or she shall be a Suitable person for that purpose.

Section 2. Be it further enacted, that the said court shall be fully satisfied that the person or persons to whom said minor shall be apprenticed shall be a suitable person to have the charge and care of said minor and fully to protect the interest of said minor. The said court shall require the said master or mistress to execute bond and security, payable to the state of Mississippi, conditioned that he or she shall furnish said minor with sufficient food and clothing; to treat said minor humanely; furnish medical attention in case of sickness; teach or cause to be taught him or her to read and write, if under fifteen years old; and will conform to any law that may be hereafter passed for the regulation of the duties and relation of master and apprentice:
—–Provided, that said apprentice shall be bound by indenture, in case of males until they are twenty-one years old, and in case of females until they are eighteen years old.

Section 3. Be it further enacted, that in the management and control of said apprentices, said master or mistress shall have power to inflict such moderate corporeal chastisement as a father or guardian is allowed to inflict on his or her child or ward at common law:
—–Provided, that in no case shall cruel or inhuman punishment be inflicted.

Section 4. Be it further enacted, that if any apprentice shall leave the employment of his or her master or mistress without his or her consent, said master or mistress may pursue and recapture said apprentice and bring him or her before any justice of the peace of the county, whose duty it shall be to remand said apprentice to the service of his or her master or mistress; and in the event of a refusal on the part of said apprentice so to return, then said justice shall commit said apprentice to the jail of said county, on failure to give bond, until the next term of the county court; and it shall be the duty of said court, at the first term thereafter, to investigate said case; and if the court shall be of opinion that said apprentice left the employment of his or her master or mistress without good cause, to order him or her to be punished, as provided for the punishment of hired freedmen, as may be from time to time provided for by law, for desertion, until he or she shall agree to return to his or her master or mistress:
—–Provided, that the court may grant continuances, as in other cases; and provided, further, that if the court shall believe that said apprentice had good cause to quit his said master or mistress, the court shall discharge said apprentice from said indenture and also enter a judgment against the master or mistress for not more than $100, for the use and benefit of said apprentice, to be collected on execution, as in other cases….

II. Vagrancy Law
Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that all rogues and vagabonds, idle and dissipated persons, beggars, jugglers, or persons practising unlawful games or plays, runaways, common drunkards, common nightwalkers, pilferers, lewd, wanton, or lascivious persons, in speech or behavior, common railers and brawlers, persons who neglect their calling or employment, misspend what they earn, or do not provide for the support of themselves or their families or dependents, and all other idle and disorderly persons, including all who neglect all lawful business, or habitually misspend their time by frequenting houses of ill-fame, gaming houses, or tippling shops, shall be deemed and considered vagrants under the provisions of this act; and, on conviction thereof shall be fined not exceeding $100, with all accruing costs, and be imprisoned at the discretion of the court not exceeding ten days.

Section 2. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes in this state over the age of eighteen years found on the second Monday in January 1966, or thereafter, with no lawful employment or business, or found unlawfully assembling themselves together either in the day or nighttime, and all white persons so assembling with freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes, or usually associating with freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes on terms of equality, or living in adultery or fornication with a freedwoman, free Negro, or mulatto, shall be deemed vagrants; and, on conviction thereof, shall be fined in the sum of not exceeding, in the case of a freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, 150, and a white man, $200, and imprisoned at the discretion of the court, the free Negro not exceeding ten days, and the white man not exceeding six months….

III. Civil Rights of Freedmen
Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes may sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded in all the courts of law and equity of this state, and may acquire personal property and choses in action, by descent or purchase, and may dispose of the same in the same manner and to the same extent that white persons may:
—–Provided, that the provisions of this section shall not be construed as to allow any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to rent or lease any lands or tenements, except in incorporated towns or cities, in which places the corporate authorities shall control the same.

Section 2. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes may intermarry with each other, in the same manner and under the same regulations that are provided by law for white persons:
—–Provided, that the clerk of probate shall keep separate records of the same.

Section 3. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes who do now and have heretofore lived and cohabited together as husband and wife shall be taken and held in law as legally married, and the issue shall be taken and held as legitimate for all purposes. That it shall not be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to intermarry with any white person; nor for any white person to intermarry with aiy freedman, free Negro, or mulatto; and any person who shall so intermarry shall be deemed guilty of felony and, on conviction thereof, shall be confined in the state penitentiary for life; and those shall be deemed freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes who are of pure Negro blood; and those descended from a Negro to the third generation inclusive, though one ancestor of each generation may have been a white person….

IV. Penal Code
Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that no freedman, free Negro, or mulatto not in the military service of the United States government, and not licensed so to do by the board of police of his or her county, shall keep or carry firearms of’any kind, or any ammunition, dirk, or Bowie knife; and, on conviction thereof in the county court, shall be punished by fine, not exceeding $10, and pay the costs of such proceedings, and all such arms or ammunition shall be forfeited to the informer; and it shall be the duty of every civil and military officer to arrest any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto found with any such arms or ammunition, and cause him or her to be committed for trial in default of bail.

Section 2. Be it further enacted, that any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto committing riots, routs, affrays, trespasses, malicious mischief, cruel treatment to animals, seditious speeches, insulting gestures, language, or acts, or assaults on any person, disturbance of the peace, exercising the function of a minister of the Gospel without a license from some regularly organized church, vending spirituous or intoxicating liquors, or committing any other misdemeanor t e punishment of which is not specifically provided for by law shall, upon conviction thereof in the county court, be fined not less than $10 and not more than $100, and may be imprisoned, at the discretion of the court, not exceeding thirty days.

Section 3. Be it further enacted, that if any white person shall sell, lend, or give to any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto any firearms, dirk, or Bowie knife, or ammunition, or any spirituous or intoxicating liquors, such person or persons so offending, upon conviction thereof in the county court of his or her county, shall be fined not exceeding $50, and may be imprisoned, at the discretion of the court, not exceeding thirty days:
—–Provided, that any master, mistress, or employer of any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto may give to any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto apprenticed to or employed by such master, mistress, or employer spirituous or intoxicating liquors, but not in sufficient quantities to produce intoxication.

Section 4. Be it further enacted, that all the penal and criminal laws now in force in this state defining offenses and prescribing the mode of punishment for crimes and misdemeanors committed by slaves, free Negroes, or mulattoes be and the same are hereby reenacted and declared to be in full force and effect against freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes, except so far as the mode and manner of trial and punishment have been changed or altered by law.

Section 5. Be it further enacted, that if any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto convicted of any of the misdemeanors provided against in this act shall fail-or refuse, for the space of five days after conviction, to pay the fine and costs imposed, such person shall be hired out by the sheriff or other officer, at public outcry, to any white person who will pay said fine and all costs and take such convict for the shortest time….