Archive for January, 2009

MC practice 2- 2009

Review for your upcoming test on Tuesday

Multiple choice practice 2- January 30, 2009

1. All of the following were political objectives of the Populists EXCEPT
A. government ownership of major industries such as railroads and telegraphs
B. replacing regressive taxes with a graduated income tax
C. the free and unlimited coining of silver
D. direct election of US Senators
E. creating a national system of unemployment insurance

2. William Jennings Bryan became the presidential candidate of both the Democrats and the Populists in 1896 because of his support for
A. high protective tariffs to protect domestic industries
B. unlimited free coinage of silver
C. nationalizing the railroad industry
D. policies that would unite poor black and white farmers
E. a single six-year term for presidents

3. Coxey’s Army
A. reflected discontent with the government’s response to the depression in 1893
B. was the military wing of the Populist party
C. was the name given to supporters of Jacob Coxey’s candidacy for president in 1896
D. were strong advocates of the gold standard
E. were Democrats who switched their political allegiance to the Republicans in the 1896 election

4. Andrew Carnegie’s use of vertical integration was significant in that it
A. synthesized the various immigrant labor groups into one productive force
B. led to substantial cooperation between industry and banking
C. stimulated competition in the steel industry
D. allowed a capitalist to control all aspects of the production process
E. ultimately led to the construction of massive steel factories in Pittsburgh

5. Which of the following accurately reflects the impact that industrialization had upon the American worker?
A. The standard of living for most workers had declined by the late nineteenth century
B. The standard of living for most workers improved by the late nineteenth century, but workers had become mere mechanisms in the production process
C. Many wage laborers ultimately saved enough of their salaries to start their own businesses
D. Most workers cam to develop a lasting economic and social bond with their employers
E. Most workers experienced ever higher wages and even greater control over what they produced

6. In his “Gospel of Wealth,” Andrew Carnegie articulated the view that
A. the wealthy were entitled to their riches and had no responsibility to share it with others
B. only those born into wealth were the real economic leaders of the nation
C. religious leaders had a responsibility to convince their parishioners that success was attainable to those who worked hard
D. capitalism and Christianity were intimately related in the progress of individuals and nations
E. the wealthy were morally obligated to use some of their wealth for the improvement of society

7. The Industrial Workers of the World (the Wobblies) differed from other major trade unions in that
A. it sought to negotiate and mediate its differences with management
B. unlike other unions, it disdained using boycotts and strikes against capital
C. its objective was to eliminate private ownership of the means of production
D. it was recognized by capitalists as the legitimate bargaining agent of its members
E. it was outlawed by the US government

8. In order to promote the interests of labor, trade unions of the late 19th century would support
A. the open shop
B. unilateral bargaining
C. subsistence wages
D. the yellow dog contract
E. the closed shop

9. The railroad strike of 1877
A. was the first time a president ordered US troops to stop a strike
B. led to significant wage increases for railroad workers
C. was the first time that management recognized the legitimacy of a trade union
D. was the only time in the 29th century that government sided with the workers
E. led to significant improvements in worker safety laws but not wage increases

10. The Knights of Labor
A. was led by Samuel Gompers
B. promoted better wages for white males, thus playing into the racial and gender stereotypes of the time in a bid to gain power
C. was destroyed in the wake of the Haymarket riots in 1886
D. was able to win the concession of an eight-hour workday for federal employees
E. is still in existence today as part of the AFL-CIO

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MC practice 1- 2009

MC practice number 1- January 29, 2009
Choose the best answer. The chapter number is in parentheses. Comments are closed on these, and you need to bring your answers with you to class tomorrow- this is for a grade.

1. The Pendleton Act required appointees to public office to (23)
A. take a competitive examination.
B. present a written recommendation from a congressman or senator.
C. agree to make a financial contribution to their political party.
D. pledge independence from either major political party.
E. have a college degree.

2. The second president to be assassinated while in office was (23)
A. Abraham Lincoln     D. Benjamin Harrison
B. Rutherford Hayes      E. James Garfield
C. Chester Arthur

3. By the end of the 1700’s, what percentage of the American population lived in a rural area? (5)
A. 25     D. 75
B. 40     E. 90
C. 60

4. During the Revolution, Loyalists were least numerous in (ch. eight)
A. New York D. the middle colonies.
B. New England E. Pennsylvania
C. Virginia

5. The Bill of Rights was intended to protect _______ against the potential tyranny of _______. (10)
A. the prerogatives of Congress; the president
B. the army and the navy; the national government
C. the South; the northern majority
D. individual liberties; a strong central government
E. civilian authorities; the military

6. The influx of immigrants to the US tripled, then quadrupled, in the (14)
A. 1780s and 1790s.      D. 1840s and 1850s.
B. 1800s and 1810s.      E. 1860s and 1870s.
C. 1820s and 1830s.

7. The two major Civil War battles fought on Union soil were (21)
A. Shiloh and Chancellorsville   D. Peninsula Campaign and Fredericksburg
B. Bull Run and Vicksburg           E. Mobile and Missionary Ridge
C. Gettysburg and Antietam

8. African Americans during the Revolutionary War (7)
A. fought for both the Americans and the British.
B. fought only for the British.
C. fought only for the Americans.
D. supported neither side, as both enslaved them.
E. took advantage of the opportunity to run away to Barbados.

9. President Jefferson’s foreign policy of economic coercion (11)
A. underestimated British dependence on American trade.
B. adversely affected France’s economy more than Britain’s.
C. stimulated manufacturing in the US.
D. destroyed the Federalist party in New England.
E. succeeded in convincing the British to halt impressments.

10. The Hudson River school excelled in (15)
A. painting landscapes.
B. creating realistic literature describing city life.
C. teaching classic language and mathematics.
D. teaching riverboat pilots like Mark Twain.
E. creating new religious movements.

Written assignment for next class

In approximately 300 words, summarize the significance of the frontier in the development of Americans’ sense of identity. There are specific words I will be looking for, so …um, be like, you know, SPECIFIC.

Please write in either black or blue ink or type. Please do not email me this assignment.

Keep looking for the outline format for 27….

The outlines for chapter 27 are further down this page. Make sure you read the new posts on the Populists and the Greenback Labor party, too. There may be questions about them on your  next terms check –and definitely on your test on Friday!

The Populists and what they stood for

The Populists (or People’s Party) burst onto the political stage in the election of 1892. They supported increasing the power of the working class and the farmers against the interests of the wealthy, who were more politically powerful– even before 19892, money was the lifeblood of politics.

Their first statement of goals was the Omaha Platform of 1892. Make sure you are familiar with the contents of this document.

Why were each of these items important to the Populists?

Public ownership of the railroads, steamship lines and telephone and telegraph systems: this would stop the practice of unfair rates for small farmers versus the volume discounts secured by large landholders and other sorts of political corruption that the railroads had certainly practiced. Rightly or wrongly, the farmers blamed the railroads for much of their problems. The costs of shipping in general cut into the farmers’ livelihoods. In general, the monopolies of the telephone and telegraph companies also was seen as a threat to their economic wellbeing.

Free and unlimited coinage of silver: From this website: “Before 1873 anyone who brought 3.7125 grains of silver to the mint could receive a legal-tender silver dollar, and the campaign for free silver fought for a return of these conditions.

“Between the mid-1830s and 1873 the market price of silver exceeded the mint price of $1.29 cents per ounce; therefore, very little silver found its way to the mint. Silver dollars had largely disappeared from circulation when Congress enacted the Coinage Act of 1873, an act that made no provision for the coinage of silver, and put the United States on an unofficial gold standard. Proponents of free silver later condemned the act as the “Crime of ’73.”

“The deletion of the silver dollar drew little attention at the time, but the United States was already in the clutches of a deflationary downswing that would last three decades. From 1870 until 1896 prices plunged 50 percent, a deflationary wave that hit hard at farmers in the West and South, where debt incidence stood at high levels.

“These groups quite rightly saw that a return to free and unlimited coinage of silver would raise the domestic money stock, raise prices, and reduce their debt burden. Much of the populist flavor of the free silver movement came from the hopes it lifted among large numbers of low-income farmers.

“Silver prices felt an added deflationary force because the world was rushing toward a gold standard that left little role for silver as a monetary metal. Major silver discoveries in the American West further depressed the market for silver. From 1850 until 1872 the market price of an ounce of silver stood above $1.32, clearly above the mint price, but the price had slipped to $1.24 by 1874, and from there it tumbled to $0.65 by 1895. Silver-mining interests in the United States saw free silver as a way of increasing the demand for silver, and putting a floor under silver prices. They would have been delighted to sell silver to the Treasury for $1.29.”

Abolition of national banks: The populists say the national banks as the bastion of the wealthy. They wanted to see the federal government directly take over the control of the money supply (and of course, adopt inflationary policies). This was eventually accomplished during the Progressive era with the creation of the Federal Reserve System in the early 20th century.

Graduated income tax: From the founding of the US, the main source of revenue for the government were tariffs and excise taxes. These kind of taxes are often referred to by economists as “regressive” because they take up a larger proportion of poor people’s incomes than of wealthy people’s. Tariffs and excise taxes caused the prices of goods to increase, hurting the poor more than the rich. Therefore, the Populists proposed a graduated (meaning increasing in steps or increments”) income tax to take the place of tariffs. An income tax had been levied to attempt to pay for the Civil War (by both the Union and the Confederacy), but the Supreme Court in 1895 had declared an income tax unconstitutional. Therefore this would require a constitutional amendment to achieve.

Direct election of Senators: Since the founding of the US, Senators had been elected by the state legislatures. Remember, too, that Senators served the longest term of any federal elected officials– 6 years. The Populists argued that Senators were therefore interested less in the interests of the people of the states than with remaining in the good graces of the major corporations in their states, who often exercised undue influence over state legislatures– think of the power of McDonnell Douglas and Anheuser Busch back when they both had their headquarters in this state.

Although the Populists did not achieve many of their aims, they did lay the groundwork for the passage of the income tax in the 16th Amendment and the direct election of senators in the 17th Amendment, both in 1913 during the Progressive era.

Read the following websites:

http://www.columbia.edu/~rr91/1052_2002/lectures_2002/populist_movement.htm

http://lhs.lexingtonma.org/Teachers/David/LI%20US%20history/liusreview_gildedage.html

And for those of you conspiracy theorists, this makes me laugh– a claim that the 16th Amendment was never really ratified.

The Greenback Labor Party- Forerunner of the Populists

Greenback Labor Party

The Greenback Party was established in 1875. It got its name for the slang term for paper money– greenbacks– which of course were inflationary. Its main support came from farmers who were suffering from declining farm prices, high railroad rates and the government’s deflationary currency policies. Peter Cooper was the party’s presidential candidate in 1876 but he won only 81,737 votes and was easily beaten by Rutherford Hayes (4,036,298) and Samuel Tilden (4,300,590). However, the party did send 15 representatives to Congress.

In 1878 members of the Greenback Party joined with urban trade union groups to establish the Greenback Labor Party. This indicates that party leaders were trying to unite farmers with urban workers in order to build a broader base of support and increase the chance of success at the polls. James Weaver emerged as leader of the party and was its presidential candidate in 1880. During the campaign Weaver argued that the two major political parties had lost sight of their original democratic ideals of equal opportunity. He also claimed that the maintenance of the gold standard benefited banking interests but was driving farmers out of business. Weaver called for policies where all classes could share in the economic wealth of America.

The Greenback Labor Party program included the coinage of silver on a par with gold, an adequate supply of money, the taxing of government bonds, a maximum eight-hour day, the introduction of graduated income tax and opposition to railroad land grants.

Weaver obtained 308,578 votes but was beaten by James Garfield (4,454,416) and Winfield S. Hancock (4,444,952). Most of Weaver’s support came from the rural West but he was now one of the most important political figures in the United States.

After the election of 1880, the Greenback-Labor Party merged with the Democratic Party in most states. Weaver was against this policy and in 1891 helped establish the Populist Party. The party advocated the public ownership of the railroads, steamship lines and telephone and telegraph systems. It also supported the free and unlimited coinage of silver, the abolition of national banks, a system of graduated income tax and the direct election of United States Senators.

Upcoming activities in the College Center!

Ms. K has prepared a series of very useful informative sessions to help you get a jump start on the college hunt.

These presentations take place during contact time. See Mrs. Patrick in the guidance center for a pass. Attendance will be taken at the meetings.

February 5– —The College Visit/Finding the Right Match

February 12—–Writing the College Resume

February 19—–NAIA/NCAA- Playing Athletics in College

February 26—-Financial Aid 101/Scholarships

March 5——–Competitive Colleges

Days Off From School That You Should Use to Visit Colleges

January 16

February 13 and 16

March 6

March 16-20

Call the college two weeks in advance to set up an official visit; see green college handout on the chapter on how to set up a visit.

This information will also be posted on the upcoming deadlines page of this blog.