Archive for August, 2009

A good place to help study terms

Since some of you are concerned about your terms check comprehension, here is a good site (although it is based on a different textbook, there is a lot of overlap):

For practice multiple choice items, this site provides instant feedback:

I’d bookmark these sites, if I were struggling, and I’d use them often!

Ourtline note format for Chapter 7

Outline Note format Ch 7

Organize your notes from your reading in the text and the readings book around the following format. These are due Tuesday.

I. Why did mercantilism cause colonial dissatisfaction with British policies?
—A. Explanation of mercantilism
—B. Benefits/ disadvantages to the mother country
—C. Benefits/disadvantages to colonies
—D. How did it help unify the colonies
—E. What finally caused the British to attempt to strictly enforce mercantilist policies?
II. What were the various schemes used by the British to raise revenue?
—A, B, C, D, etc—various taxes and their intents, whether they were repealed….
—F. What was the purpose of the Quartering Act, and how did colonists respond? Why?
—G. Declaratory Act
III. How did colonists react to each specific tax? How did the rebellion grow?
—A. Massacre
—B. Tea Party
—C. Committees of Correspondence
—D. Stamp Act Congress
—E. Boycotts
—F. Riots
—G. Shots fired, Dec of Causes of Taking Up Arms
—H. Declaring independence
IV. Compare the various advantages and disadvantages of each potential side as the Revolution became more likely.

Bring your books to class August 28

… so that we can work on our skill-building activity on note-taking from a text.

An account of the Salem Witch Trials

This excerpt is from “The Wonders of the Invisible World,” by Cotton Mather, Puritan preacher. Here he tells the story of the accusations against Martha Carrier during the Salem Witch Trials of 1692.

I. Martha Carrier was indicted for the bewitching certain persons, according to the form usual in such cases, pleading not guilty to her indictment; there were first brought in a considerable number of the bewitched persons who not only made the court sensible of an horrid witchcraft committed upon them, but also deposed that it was Martha Carrier, or her shape, that grievously tormented them, by biting, pricking, pinching and choking of them. It was further deposed that while this Carrier was on her examination before the magistrates, the poor people were so tortured that every one expected their death upon the very spot, but that upon the binding of Carrier they were eased. Moreover the look of Carrier then laid the afflicted people for dead; and her touch, if her eye at the same time were off them, raised them again: which things were also now seen upon her trial. And it was testified that upon the mention of some having their necks twisted almost round, by the shape of this Carrier, she replied, “It’s no matter though their necks had been twisted quite off.”

II. Before the trial of this prisoner, several of her own children had frankly and fully confessed not only that they were witches themselves, but that this their mother had made them so. This confession they made with great shows of repentance, and with much demonstration of truth. They related place, time, occasion; they gave an account of journeys, meetings and mischiefs by them performed, and were very credible in what they said. Nevertheless, this evidence was not produced against the prisoner at the bar, inasmuch as there was other evidence enough to proceed upon.

III. Benjamin Abbot gave his testimony that last March was a twelvemonth, this Carrier was very angry with him, upon laying out some land near her husband’s: her expressions in this anger were that she would stick as close to Abbot as the bark stuck to the tree; and that he should repent of it afore seven years came to an end, so as Doctor Prescot should never cure him. These words were heard by others besides Abbot himself; who also heard her say, she would hold his nose as close to the grindstone as ever it was held since his name was Abbot. Presently after this, he was taken with a swelling in his foot, and then with a pain in his side, and exceedingly tormented. It bred into a sore, which was lanced by Doctor Prescot, and several gallons of corruption ran out of it. For six weeks it continued very bad, and then another sore bred in the groin, which was also lanced by Doctor Prescot. Another sore than bred in his groin, which was likewise cut, and put him to very great misery: he was brought unto death’s door, and so remained until Carrier was taken, and carried away by the constable, from which very day he began to mend, and so grew better every day, and is well ever since.

Sarah Abbot also, his wife, testified that her husband was not only all this while afflicted in his body, but also that strange, extraordinary and unaccountable calamities befell his cattle; their death being such as they could guess at no natural reason for.

IV. Allin Toothaker testified that Richard, the son of Martha Carrier, having some difference with him, pulled him down by the hair of the head. When he rose again he was going to strike at Richard Carrier but fell down flat on his back to the ground, and had not power to stir hand or foot, until he told Carrier he yielded; and then he saw the shape of Martha Carrier go off his breast.

This Toothaker had received a wound in the wars; and he now testified that Martha Carrier told him he should never be cured. Just afore the apprehending of Carrier, he could thrust a knitting needle into his wound four inches deep; but presently after her being seized, he was thoroughly healed.

He further testified that when Carrier and he some times were at variance, she would clap her hands at him, and say he should get nothing by it; whereupon he several times lost his cattle, by strange deaths, whereof no natural causes could be given.

V. John Rogger also testified that upon the threatening words of this malicious Carrier, his cattle would be strangely bewitched; as was more particularly then described.

VI. Samuel Preston testified that about two years ago, having some difference with Martha Carrier, he lost a cow in a strange, preternatural, unusual manner; and about a month after this, the said Carrier, having again some difference with him, she told him he had lately lost a cow, and it should not be long before he lost another; which accordingly came to pass; for he had a thriving and well-kept cow, which without any known cause quickly fell down and died.

VII. Phebe Chandler testified that about a fortnight before the apprehension of Martha Carrier, on a Lordsday, while the Psalm was singing in the Church, this Carrier then took her by the shoulder and shaking her, asked her, where she lived: she made her no answer, although as Carrier, who lived next door to her father’s house, could not in reason but know who she was. Quickly after this, as she was at several times crossing the fields, she heard a voice, that she took to be Martha Carrier’s, and it seemed as if it was over her head. The voice told her she should within two or three days be poisoned. Accordingly, within such a little time, one half of her right hand became greatly swollen and very painful; as also part of her face: whereof she can give no account how it came. It continued very bad for some days; and several times since she has had a great pain in her breast; and been so seized on her legs that she has hardly been able to go. She added that lately, going well to the house of God, Richard, the son of Martha Carrier, looked very earnestly upon her, and immediately her hand, which had formerly been poisoned, as is abovesaid, began to pain her greatly, and she had a strange burning at her stomach; but was then struck deaf, so that she could not hear any of the prayer, or singing, till the two or three last words of the Psalm.

VIII. One Foster, who confessed her own share in the witchcraft for which the prisoner stood indicted, affirmed that she had seen the prisoner at some of their witch-meetings, and that it was this Carrier, who perusaded her to be a witch. She confessed that the Devil carried them on a pole to a witch-meeting; but the pole broke, and she hanging about Carrier’s neck, they both fell down, and she then received an hurt by the fall, whereof she was not at this very time recovered.

IX. One Lacy, who likewise confessed her share in this witchcraft, now testified, that she and the prisoner were once bodily present at a witch-meeting in Salem Village; and that she knew the prisoner to be a witch, and to have been at a diabolical sacrament, and that the prisoner was the undoing of her and her children by enticing them into the snare of the devil.

X. Another Lacy, who also confessed her share in this witchcraft, now testified, that the prisoner was at the witch-meeting, in Salem Village, where they had bread and wine administered unto them.

XI. In the time of this prisoner’s trial, one Susanna Sheldon in open court had her hands unaccountably tied together with a wheel-band so fast that without cutting it, it could not be loosed: it was done by a specter; and the sufferer affirmed it was the prisoner’s.

Memorandum. This rampant hag, Martha Carrier, was a person of whom the confessions of the witches, and of her own children among the rest, agreed that the devil had promised her she should be Queen of Hebrews.

Zenger on Abuse of Power

Suspicion of Arbitrary Power
John P. Zenger, 1733
newspaper excerpt

From the Gilder-Lehrman Institute of History Website

A pivotal jury decision in New York in 1735 helped establish the principle of freedom of the press. Opponents of New York’s royal governor William Cosby had set up John Peter Zenger (1697-1746), a German immigrant, as publisher of the New York Weekly Journal in 1733. The next year, after New York’s governor dismissed one of his leading opponents, Chief Justice Lewis Morris, from office, the Weekly Journal severely criticized Cosby. Because the articles attacking Cosby were published anonymously, the governor had Zenger indicted and tried for seditious libel. English law defined any criticism of a public official–true or false–as libel. But Zenger’s attorney, Andrew Hamilton (1676-1741) of Philadelphia, persuaded the jury that Zenger had printed the truth and that the truth is not libelous. In stirring words, Hamilton told the jury that “the Question before the Court…is not the Cause of a poor Printer, nor of New-York alone…. No! It may in its Consequence, affect every Freeman that lives under a British Government on the Main of America…. It is the Cause of Liberty…. Every Man who prefers Freedom to a Life of Slavery will bless and honour You, as Men who have…given us a Right…both of exposing and opposing arbitrary Power (in these Parts of the World, at least) by speaking and writing Truth.” An excerpt from Zenger’s Weekly Journal gives vivid expression to the popular suspicion of arbitrary power.

Mr. Zenger, Pray insert the following sentiments of Cato, and you’ll oblige Yours, &c. Considering what sort of a Creature Man is, it is scarce possible to put him under too many restraints, when he is possessed of great Power: He may possibly use it well; but they act most prudently, who supposing that he would use it ill enclose him within certain Bounds and make it terrible to him to exceed them. It is nothing strange, that Men, who think themselves unaccountable, should act unaccountably, and that all Men would be unaccountable if they could…; and no Man cares to be at the entire Mercy of another. Hence it is that if every Man had his Will, all Men would exercise Dominion, and no Man would suffer it. It is therefore owning more to the Necessities of Men, than to their Inclinations, that they have put themselves under the Restraint of Laws, and appointed certain persons, called Magistrates, to execute them; otherwise they would never be executed, scarce any Man having such a Degree of Virtue as unwillingly to execute the Laws upon himself…. Hence grew the Necessity of Government, which was the mutual Contract of a Number of Men, agreeing upon certain Terms of Union and Society, and putting themselves under Penalties if they violated these terms, which were called Laws, and put into the Hands of one or more Men to execute. And thus men quitted Part of their natural Liberty to acquire civil Security. But frequently the Remedy prov’d worse than the Disease; and humane Society had often no enemies so great as their own Magistrates; who, wherever they were trusted with too much Power, always abused it, and grew mischievous to those who made them what they were. Rome, while she was free, (that is, while she kept her Magistrates within due bounds) could defend herself against all the world, and conquer it; but being enslaved (that is her Magistrates having broke their Bounds) she could not defend her self against her own single Tyrants; nor could they defend her against her foreign Foes and Invaders: For by their Madness and Cruelties they had destroyed her Virtue and Spirit, and exhausted her Strength…. The common People generally think that great Men have great Minds, and scorn base Actions; which Judgment is so false, that the basest and worst of all Actions have been done by great Men; perhaps they have not picked private Pockets, but they have done worse, they have often disturbed, deceived and pillaged the World: And he who is capable of the highest Mischiefs, is capable of the Meanest. He who plunders a Country of Millions of Money, would in suitable Circumstances steal a Silver Spoon; and a Conqueror, who steals and pillages a Kingdom, would in an humbler Fortune rifle a Portmanteau or rob an Orchard. Political Jealousy, therefore, in the people is a necessary and laudable Passion. But in a Chief Magistrate, a Jealousy of his People is not so justifiable, their Ambition being only to preserve themselves; whereas it is natural for Power to be striving to enlarge itself, and to be encroaching upon those that have none…. Now because Liberty chastises and shortens Power, therefore Power would extinguish Liberty; and consequently Liberty has too much cause to be exceeding jealous and always upon her Defence. Power has many Advantages over her; it has generally numerous Guards, many Creatures, and much Treasure; besides it has more Craft and Experience, and less Honesty and Innocence: And whereas Power can, and for the most Part does subsist where Liberty is not, Liberty cannot subsist without Power; so that she has, as it were, the Enemy always at her Gates. To Conclude: Power without Control appertains to God alone; and no Man ought to be trusted with what no Man is equal to. In Truth, there are so many passions and Inconsistencies, and so much Selfishness, belonging to humane Nature, that we can scarce be too much upon our Guard against each other. The only Security we have that men will be Honest, is to make it their Interest to be Honest; and the best Defence we can have against their being Knaves, is to make it terrible to them to be Knaves. As there are many Men, wicked in some Stations, who would be innocent in others; the best way is to make Wickedness unsafe in any Station.

Colonial life in America

Drive-Thru History!!!

This video can also be found at

These guys have a great sense of humor! Topic: Why Jamestown wasn’t all that smart of a location….

Sample Test Questions, Chapters 1-4

You may see some of these tomorrow…..

1. All of the following contributed to the emergence of a new interdependent global economic system except:
A. Europe providing the market and the capital.
B.  Africa providing the labor.
C. the belief of European explorers that it was important to create new cultures.
D. New World providing its raw materials.
E. the advancement and improvement of technology.

2. The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in
A.    a price revolution that lowered consumer costs.
B.    the growth of capitalism.
C.    a reduced amount of trade with Asia.
D.    more money for France and Spain but less for Italy and Holland.
E.    little impact on the world economy.

3. Under the Barbados slave code of 1661, slaves were
A. guaranteed the right to marry.
B.  denied the most fundamental rights.
C. protected from the most vicious punishments.
D. given the opportunity to purchase their freedom.
E. assigned a specific monetary value.

4. North Carolina and Rhode Island were similar in that they
A.  were very aristocratic.
B.  were completely under the control of the crown.
C.  depended upon trade with Spain.
D.  were the two most democratic colonies.
E.  were founded by Roger Williams.

5. Bartolomeo De Las Casas is most famous for being
A. a fierce conquistador who conquered the Incas.
B. a critic of the way the Spanish treated the Indians.
C. the bishop of Chiapas.
D. the first Spanish pope who negotiated the Treaty of Tordesillas.
E. a slugger for the Boston Red Sox in the late 1960s.

6. An “established’ church was one that
A. was a traditional denomination.
B. followed the doctrines of John Calvin.
C. could trace its history back to the apostles.
D. was created in America.
E. was supported by tax money.

7. Compared with most 17th century Europeans, Americans lived in
A. relative poverty.            D. a more rigid class system.
B. larger cities.                   E. more primitive circumstances.
C. affluent abundance.

8. During the Salem witchcraft trials, most of those accused as witches were
A. property-owning women.
B. from the ranks of poor families.
C. primarily un-Christian.
D. women in their late teen years.
E. from subsistence farming families.

You’re welcome.

The Exploration of Henry Hudson

The explorer as a exemplar for the time of exploration. From the New York State Museum.

This video can also be accessed at

Welcome to APUSH!

Glad to have you all in class, and I look forward to great things this year!

Remember to bring your textbooks and your terms with you to class tomorrow. There will be a quiz over the terms in class.

By the way, if you look directly above this post, you will see tabs with other pages that may be useful to you. One of them has current deadlines. Another lists the current words of the day.

Below this post are three documents that will help you with  chapter 1. There are more documents about chapters 1-4 in the Categories tab to the right hand side of the blog.

A Spanish Priest’s Critique of the Slave Trade

The European colonization of the New World brought three disparate geographical areas together: the Americas, western Europe, and western Africa. Some of the consequences of this inter-cultural contact are well-known, such as the introduction of horses, pigs, and cattle into the New World, and the transfer of potatoes, beans, and tomatoes to Europe. But other consequences of the Columbian exchange are less noted. As a result of the Atlantic slave trade, such New World food crops as cassava, sweet potatoes, squash, and peanuts were carried to Africa, sharply stimulating African population growth and therefore increasing the population in ways that helped make the slave trade possible.

As you read, consider the following questions:
1. Which groups are accused of taking part in the slave trade?
2. Why are the Africans not chastised for their part in the slave trade?
3. What is one irony about the Columbian exchange in terms of its impact on Africa?

A Critique of the Slave Trade, 1587
Fray Tomas de Mercado

It is public opinion and knowledge that no end of deception is practiced and a thousand acts of robbery and violence are committed in the course of bartering and carrying off Negroes from their country and bringing them to the Indies and to Spain….

Since the Portuguese and Spaniards pay so much for a Negro, they go out to hunt one another without the pretext of a war, as if they were deer; even the very Ethiopians, who are different, being induced to do so by the profit derived. They make war on one another, their gain being the capture of their own people, and they go after one another in the forests where they usually hunt….

In this way, and contrary to all justice, a very great number of prisoners are taken. And no one is horrified that these people are ill-treating and selling one another, because they are considered uncivilized and savage. In addition to the pretext, of parents selling their children as a last resort, there is the bestial practice of selling them without any necessity to do so, and very often through anger or passion, for some displeasure or disrespect they have shown them….

The wretched children are taken to the market place for sale, and as the traffic in Negroes is so great, there are Portuguese, or even Negroes themselves, ready everywhere to buy them. There are also among them traders in this bestial and brutal business, who set boundaries in the interior for the natives and carry them off for sale at a higher price on the coasts or in the islands. I have seen many acquired in this way. Apart from these acts of injustice and robberies committed among themselves, there are thousands of other forms of deception practiced in those parts by the Spaniards to trick and carry off the Negroes finally as newly imported slaves, which they are in fact, to the ports, with a few bonnets, gewgaws, beads and bits of paper under which they give them. They put them aboard the ships under false pretenses, hoist anchor, set sail, and make off towards the high seas with their booty….

I know a man who recently sailed to one of those Islands and, with less than four thousand ducats for ransom, carried off four hundred Negroes without license or registration….

They embark four and five hundred of them in a boat which, sometimes, is not a cargo boat. The very stench is enough to kill most of them, and, indeed, very many die. The wonder is that twenty percent of them are not lost.

(From J.A. Saco, Historia de la Escalvitud de la Raza Africana, Tomo II, pp. 80-82)