Archive for March, 2010

Eisenhower warns about the power of the military industrial complex

Here, President Eisenhower, former Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during World War II and first supreme commander of NATO, warns of the growing power and influence of defense contractors in American politics. This is his farewell speech as he prepares to leave the presidency in January of 1961.

The test of the full speech can be found here:

What had happened to defense specnding during the Eisenhower years that prompted Eisenhower to make such a prominent warning a part of his farewell address?

A few days after this farewell address, Kennedy gave his inaugural sppech. How do these two speeches compare?

Chapter 37 Outlines– due March 30

Chapter 37 Outline—Eisenhower Era
Due Tuesday, March 30 for everyone!

Make sure you write a summary answer to the questions!

I. Explain whether Eisenhower is a liberal, a moderate, or a conservative.
—–A. Election of ’52 and the politicization of Eisenhower
———-Problems with Nixon
———-(Look up and read the Checkers speech)
———-television changes campaigning
—–B. Which party is “soft” on Communism?
—–C. Fight against “creeping socialism” and “socialized medicine”
———-Price supports and the “free-market”
—–D. Native Americans and “termination and relocation”
—–E. Warning about the “military-industrial complex”

II. The War on Communism is reborn as “McCarthyism”
—–A. McCarthy and his “witch hunt”
—–B. Explain what purges are and how they occurred
—–C. How does McCarthy cause his own downfall?
—–D. What is the effect on labor?
———-Merger of AFL and CIO
———-Teamster troubles
———-Labor reform
———-Landrum-Griffin Act

III. How does our war against international Communism affect the movement for civil rights at home?
—–A. An American Dilemma
—–B. Jim Crow laws
—–C. Desegregating professional sports
—–D. NAACP adopts a legal strategy
———-Thurgood Marshall
———-Sweatt case
———-Rosa Parks and MLK
—–E. To Secure These Rights
———-What was Truman’s civil rights record? (Why is this surprising?)
—–F. What is the focus of the Warren Court?
—–G. Little Rock Nine (go to for more info)
—–H. Civil Rights Act
—–J. SNCC and sit-in movement

IV. Foreign policy in the Cold War heats up
—–A. Containment criticized by JF Dulles
—–B. Massive retaliation—and fears of a “missile gap”
—–C. SAC
—–D. Khrushchev comes to power in USSR
—–E. Vietnam as a microcosm of the struggle against containment
—–F. SEATO is formed
—–G. Communism on the move in Europe
———-spirit of Geneva
—–H. Crises in the Middle East
———-Suez crisis
———-Eisenhower Doctrine
———-Formation of OPEC
—–I. Space Race and Sputnik
———-Effect on education
—–J. Spying and U-2
—–K. Crisis in Latin America

V. Society in the 50s
—–A. Consumerism
—–B. Technological advances—IBM and BOEING
—–C. New “cult of domesticity
———-Pink collar ghetto
—–D. Feminine Mystique
—–E. Fast food, TV trays, and TV preachers
—–F. Rock and roll! Long Live the King!
—–G. Literature and poetry

Korea in the news right now

The Cold War is still not over in Korea. It is interesting that the very first assumption was that the South Korean ship was sunk by North Korea.;_ylt=Aj6OdZc9NHShsOCDaNZKRR.s0NUE;_ylu=X3oDMTNoaHZyYjhrBGFzc2V0A25tLzIwMTAwMzI2L3VzX2tvcmVhX3NoaXAEY2NvZGUDbW9zdHBvcHVsYXIEY3BvcwM0BHBvcwMxBHB0A2hvbWVfY29rZQRzZWMDeW5faGVhZGxpbmVfbGlzdARzbGsDc291dGhrb3JlYW5z

The Dixiecrats and the Election of 1948

In 1948 some Southern Democrats decided to bolt the Democratic party because of its Civil Rights policies and have a separate State’s Rights Democratic national ticket. They were called Dixiecrats. Strom Thurmond was their presidential candidate. They had a convention in Birmingham, Alabama. Newspaper accounts of the events, along with the photos of the convention show the thoroughly Confederate nature of their movement. Ironically, all the campaign literature used national symbols, including the Statue of Liberty. So even though they were Confederate and sectional, they were conscious of the need to project a different image to the nation. This information comes from a microfilm from the University of Mississippi called the States Rights Scrapbook.

The following are some excerpts of newspaper reports in the Alabama and Mississippi papers at the time. Remember that the “Stars and Bars” is the well-known Confederate Battle Flag.

The Birmingham News – Sunday, July 18, 1948 – page 1.
Orators Have Field Day
It was a responsive, excited, sometimes hysterical crowd — and the convention orators made the most of it. The magic names were Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis. They never failed to bring swelling roars from the audience.
The rat-tat-tat of “Dixie” played by a swing band, raised the people screaming to their feet. The phrasemakers talked over and over about “the dagger in the back of the South.” Recognizing its cure, the crowd yelled back with one, vast voice.
The swaying state standards, Confederate banners, gyrating paraders, all bathed in the unreal …

The Birmingham Post, Saturday, July 17, 1948 – page 1, from an article “Around the Hall.”
Hats Go Off for Stars and Bars
The entire audience stood silently with hats over hearts at 10:18 a.m. when a delegation of University of Mississippi students marched to their seats behind the Confederate battle flag.
It was the most impressive and best organized stunt of the convention until that hour and gave the anxious crowd a “break’ in their wait for the delayed opening of the conclave.
They were followed into the hall seven minutes later by 10 Birmingham-Southern College students wearing string bow ties and carrying both Confederate battle and Alabama state flags.

Voice is Willing But Mike is Dead
Thomas Maxwell, Tuscaloosa political figure who once advocated “shipping the Negroes back to Africa” in a campaign address for the U.S. Senate took the limelight early, trying on several occasions to talk to the assembled delegates over a “dead” mike.

Lee’s Picture Brings Cheers
Best “prop” brought onto the convention floor was a picture of Gen. Robert E. Lee, carried high by a group of from 30 to 40 Birmingham-Southern students, most of them members of Kappa Alpha fraternity.
The stunt pulled at 10:40 a.m. brought a spontaneous cheer from the near capacity crowd of some 48000 delegates and spectators.

The Birmingham News, Saturday, July 17, 1948 – front page.
There is a photo of students with Confederate battle flags. The following is the caption.
STUDENTS FAN REVOLT FIRES – More than 50 black-hatted University of Mississippi students converged on Birmingham for the “grass roots” convention Saturday of revolting Southern States Rights Democrats. They were picked as “student delegates” at a hurriedly called meeting on the university campus yesterday. “We’re not here on a student lark, but are on serious important business,” said one of them. Six of them are pictured above in the Tutwiler Hotel Lobby. Left to right, they are Eddie K. Wilson, John C. Murray, Jr., Cleveland Davis, Lamar Triplett, Andrew Sullivan Jr. and Bobby Gene Jones.

Also, from the same page is an article about the conventions.
… Ruby Mercer, singing star of the Starlight Opera, started the conference off with the “Star Spangled Banner,” and broke into “Dixie,” drawing cheers from the auditorium. She sang a second chorus which the audience joined in.
Something like hysterical excitement swept the auditorium as Bull Conner, Alabama delegate, called walkout delegates from Mississippi and Alabama to the stage. The audience whooped and gave out rebel yells as walkouters bore their state flags and Confederate flags tot he front of the auditorium.

[Note: “Walkouters” were Democratic delegates to the Democratic national convention who walked out in protest over the Democratic adoption of a Civil Rights plank in the Democratic platform. Continuing.]

At 10:30 a.m., a half-hour after the convention originally was scheduled to start, Municipal Auditorium was about half-filled. Spectators, several carrying Confederate flags, filled the balcony seats about halfway to the rear of the hall. …
… Cheers broke out from the audience off and on as a band on the stage played such Southern tunes as “Deep in the Heart of Texas,” “Dixie,” “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny,” A “Rebel Yell” ripped across the hall.

Columbian Progress, July 22, 1948, front page caption under a photo.
The above picture shows Attorney Kelly J. Hammond, local attorney, leading the Mississippi delegation into the convention hall at Birmingham waving a Confederate flag.This was the first Confederate flag to enter the huge hall and brought the crowd to their feet with Rebel yells and applause. Also shown in the picture with Mr. Hammond are Willie Beebe, John Horn and Rev. L.R. Horn also of Marion county. (photo courtesy of Birmingham Post)

The Birmingham News, July 17, 1948, Late sports edition, front page articles and photos. One article was about the Henry Wallace (Not George Wallace) supporters being booed. The members of the Progressive Democrats, another third-party, picked the Dixiecrats.

Reb Flags Greet Wallace Pickets

Dixiecrats Boo Third Party Group
Pickets bearing pro-Henry Wallace signs appeared briefly before the meeting hall of the Southern states’ rights convention to be greeted by a host of Confederate flags. There is a picture of one of the Henry Wallace picketers hold a sign with the slogan, “End Lynching – Win With Wallace.” The caption reads, “Wallace Picket Mocked.”
On page 2 of the same issue is an article about former Oklahoma Gov. William H. Murray, known as “Alfalfa Bill” who is here for the convention. There was a photo of two students with their “original Confederate flag” listening to Murray with the following caption. The same photo and caption was also on the front page of the Birmingham Post, July 17, 1948.

FRQ writing on Friday

You will write another in-class FRQ on Friday. The prompt will be from section VI of your FRQ packet, chosen from prompts 1-5.

Those who are not here on Friday to write in class will have to make this up after school by March 30 at 3:15 pm, and will be given a different prompt than from these five. It would be wise to thoroughly outline and find information for each of these five prompts.

Extra credit books to read

You may choose ONE of these eight books to read for extra credit.

The Cycles of American History, by Arthur Schlessinger

The Americans: The Colonial Experience, by Daniel J. Boorstin

The Americans: The Democratic Experience, by Daniel J. Boorstin

The Americans: The National Experience, by Daniel J. Boorstin

A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, by Ronald Takaki

A People’s History of the United States, by Howard Zinn

The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It, by Richard Hofstadter

A Patriot’s History of the United States, by Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen

America’s Women, by Gail Collins

IMPORTANT: If you are missing assignments, you are not eligible for extra credit until you have completed all assignments !!!!!

Due date for finishing this book and completing the reflection which I will assign: April 7, 2010

Women’s Airforce Service Pilots finally awarded Congressional Gold Medal


If you go to CNN site there is a link for video; here is the text:

WASHINGTON (CNN) — Some 65 years after their service, the 300 surviving Women Airforce Service Pilots are being honored with the Congressional Gold Medal.

The House of Representatives on Tuesday passed a measure awarding the women one of the national’s highest civilian honors. The Senate passed a similar measure in May and President Obama is expected to sign it.

Jane Tedeschi when she was in the Women Airforce Service Pilot program. 

Jane Tedeschi when she was in the Women Airforce Service Pilot program.

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// With only about a quarter of the former WASPs still alive and all in their late 80s or older, it was important for the House to act quickly, Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, R-Florida, a sponsor of the bill, told CNN.

“This is a largely overlooked veterans group. They haven’t gotten the medals they deserve, the recognition they deserve,” Ros-Lehtinen told CNN.

From the time she was about 8 years old, Jane Tedeschi wanted to fly.

“[Charles] Lindbergh was flying across the Atlantic, and a lot of other people were flying air races and things like that. It was very romantic,” she said.

Flight was still relatively new in the 1920s and 1930s, and female pilots were few.

But Tedeschi was determined.

In 1941, she found a childhood friend who taught flying and started taking lessons. After the friend was sent off to war and the airport near her home in Bethesda, Maryland, was closed to private flying, she traveled about 40 miles to Frederick and spent nights on the floor of a farmhouse to continue her lessons.

Around the same time, Deanie Parrish was working in a bank in Avon Park, Florida, and kept seeing aviation students who were attending a flying school there.

“I asked an instructor ‘Why can’t I learn to fly,’ and he didn’t have an answer…so I decided to find out for myself.”

She found an instructor and started taking lessons.

These two women were not only fulfilling a personal dream. Along with 1,100 other women, they would become an instrumental part of the war effort during World War II, becoming the first women to fly U.S. military aircraft.

The Women Airforce Service Pilots was born in 1942 to create a corps of female pilots able to fill all types of flying jobs at home to free male military pilots to travel to the front.

In the days after the outbreak of the war, Jacqueline Cochran, one of the country’s leading female pilots at the time, went to a key general to argue that women would be just as capable pilots as men if they were given the same training.

She won the argument, and the program was launched.

Parrish joined up at age 21 in November 1943.

“Everybody was doing something,” she said. “I wanted to do something for my country.”

Some 25,000 women pilots applied, and 1,830 were accepted. They had to pay their own way to Texas for 21 to 27 weeks of rigorous training, for which they received less pay than the male cadets in the same program, Parrish said.

Candidates had to be at least 21 years old and at least 5-feet, one-half inch tall.

When Tedeschi underwent a physical, she was told her height was only 5 feet. Video Watch Tedeschi recall WWII »

“I frowned,” she recalled. “I said I need that half-inch, so he wrote it down.” She was in.

Eventually 1,102 women completed the program and were assigned to one of 120 bases across the country to start their missions.

Depending on the base, they did everything from participating in ground-to-air anti-aircraft practice; towing targets for air-to-air gunnery practice with live ammunition; flying drones; conducting night exercises; testing repaired aircraft before they were used in cadet training; serving as instructors; and transporting cargo and male pilots to embarkation points.

“We were still civilians. All of our training was to make [Army] Air Corps pilots,” Tedeschi said.

They flew more than 60 million miles in every type of aircraft — from the PT-17 and AT-6 trainers, the fastest attack planes like the A-24 and A-25 or heavy bombers such as B-17s or B-29s.

Paid $250 a month, the women were not officially part of the military — receiving no benefits, no honors.

Eventually Parrish was sent to Florida where she flew a B-26 bomber for air-to-air target practice, training gunners for combat.

Tedeschi, who graduated in May 1944, was sent to a Selma, Alabama, base which did more engineering work.

“We did whatever they asked us,” she recalled in a CNN interview. “You knew enough about flying you could adapt … sometimes it was a little tougher.”

For instance, she would take planes up after repair which could involve acrobatic work — “which, of course, we liked to do,” or be called to do night flying.

While the work was technically non-combat, it could be dangerous.

Thirty eight of the pilots were killed. Parrish recalled the military would not allow the flag to be put on a colleague’s coffin.

“It still bothers me,” she told CNN.

As the war was winding down in December 1944, the program was closed — with no recognition from the government and not much help for the women who served.

“You got home the best way you could,” said Parrish. “I paid my own way home.”

The women then went off to restart their prewar lives — but without getting any of the help that male veterans were getting.

Several of the women, however, said they were not bitter since the only reason they had signed up was to do their part for the country, pointing out that they were just like the thousands of other women who also learned new skills and went to work in the factories to replace male workers sent off to war.

“We were proud of what we did, and the war was over. It was time to get on,” said Tedeschi, who is married and 89 years old.

But many Americans were not aware of their efforts. The WASP records were sealed for more than 30 years. In 1977 Congress voted to make them eligible for veterans’ benefits.

“I didn’t care for veteran status, but now I could have a flag on my coffin … that is important to me,” Parrish said.

Parrish married a pilot after the war. She and her daughter, Nancy, for over a decade have documented the work of the WASPs. Read more about the WASPs at the Wings Across America Web site.


While some of the WASPs say the medal itself is a nice gesture, more importantly they say they hope the publicity will teach younger generations about their accomplishments and remind some still skeptical men just how capable women are.

“People all over the country will hear about it. It will be a national event,” Parrish said.

FDR asks for a declaration of war

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Infamy Speech
December 8, 1941

This speech was given before a joint session of Congress to ask for a declaration of war with Japan. Go to this link to actually HEAR a recording of the speech ( Follow along as you listen.

How does this speech compare with Churchill’s speech before the House of Commons below? How are the circumstances similar or different?

Yesterday, December 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.


The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese Government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

Yesterday the Japanese Government also launched an attack against Malaya.

Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.

Last night Japanese forces attacked Guam.

Last night Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.

Last night the Japanese attacked Wake Island.

This morning the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.

As Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense.

Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger.

With confidence in our armed forces – with the unbounded determination of our people – we will gain the inevitable triumph – so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December seventh, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.”

Vocabulary for this post:

Churchill’s Famous “Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat” speech

Churchill’s First Speech as Prime Minister
May 13, 1940 to House of Commons

On May 10, 1940, Winston Churchill became Prime Minister. When he met his Cabinet on May 13 he told them that “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.” He repeated that phrase later in the day when he asked the House of Commons for a vote of confidence in his new all-party government. The response of Labour was heart-warming; the Conservative reaction was luke-warm. They still really wanted Neville Chamberlain. For the first time, the people had hope but Churchill commented to General Ismay: “Poor people, poor people. They trust me, and I can give them nothing but disaster for quite a long time.”

Pay special attention to how Churchill uses alliteration, parallel structure, and vocabulary to give his speech special force and to rouse the English people to the fight.

What was going on militarily at the time for the English? What did Churchill mean by “nothing but disaster for quite a long time?”

I beg to move,
That this House welcomes the formation of a Government representing the united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with Germany to a victorious conclusion.

On Friday evening last I received His Majesty’s commission to form a new Administration. It as the evident wish and will of Parliament and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis and that it should include all parties, both those who supported the late Government and also the parties of the Opposition. I have completed the most important part of this task. A War Cabinet has been formed of five Members, representing, with the Opposition Liberals, the unity of the nation. The three party Leaders have agreed to serve, either in the War Cabinet or in high executive office. The three Fighting Services have been filled. It was necessary that this should be done in one single day, on account of the extreme urgency and rigour of events. A number of other positions, key positions, were filled yesterday, and I am submitting a further list to His Majesty to-night. I hope to complete the appointment of the principal Ministers during to-morrow. the appointment of the other Ministers usually takes a little longer, but I trust that, when Parliament meets again, this part of my task will be completed, and that the administration will be complete in all respects.

I considered it in the public interest to suggest that the House should be summoned to meet today. Mr. Speaker agreed, and took the necessary steps, in accordance with the powers conferred upon him by the Resolution of the House. At the end of the proceedings today, the Adjournment of the House will be proposed until Tuesday, 21st May, with, of course, provision for earlier meeting, if need be. The business to be considered during that week will be notified to Members at the earliest opportunity. I now invite the House, by the Motion which stands in my name, to record its approval of the steps taken and to declare its confidence in the new Government.

To form an Administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself, but it must be remembered that we are in the preliminary stage of one of the greatest battles in history, that we are in action at many other points in Norway and in Holland, that we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean, that the air battle is continuous and that many preparations, such as have been indicated by my hon. Friend below the Gangway, have to be made here at home. In this crisis I hope I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today. I hope that any of my friends and colleagues, or former colleagues, who are affected by the political reconstruction, will make allowance, all allowance, for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act. I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this government: “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.”

We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering. You ask, what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. Let that be realised; no survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge and impulse of the ages, that mankind will move forward towards its goal. But I take up my task with buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men. At this time I feel entitled to claim the aid of all, and I say, “come then, let us go forward together with our united strength.”

Images of the Great Depression and World War II home front

All of these images were from the Library of Congress’s American Memory project at

A “hobo jungle” along the St. Louis waterfront:

A sharecropper mother in Louisiana teaches her children the alphabet:

As the “Okies”  abandoned their farms in the Great Plains, they traveled along Route 66 to the West Coast. Here is a gas station in New Mexico that catered to refugees from Oklahoma. You could even get Oklahoma newspapers inside:

Migrant children in a preschool program run by the WPA eat lunch. The camp was run by the Farm Security Administration in California. The emphasis on early childhood education and nutrition by the government was groundbreaking:

On the home front, one’s patriotic duty included collecting old tires (given that Japan had seized most of the places in the world that produced rubber) and scrap metals such as iron, steel, and aluminum. These were turned in to be recycled by the Civil Defense for the war effort. This image is from Chicago in 1942: