Archive for December, 2010

Some review questions for the final

I am alive…. but barely. But I still have a gift for you:

1. What was the largest single territorial acquisition after independence?
2. Why would the average frontier settler in Illinois most likely support the United States’ acquisition of New Orleans?
3. What was meant by the phrase of “Manifest Destiny?”
4. What was the importance of Marbury v. Madison?
5. What was the Puritans’ stance on freedom of religious practice and worship?
6. What caused the original rise of political parties?
7. What was the cause of Bacon’s Rebellion? What was its long-lasting significance?
8. What was the difference between Presidential Reconstruction as envisioned by Lincoln and later Johnson, and Radical or Congressional Reconstruction?
9. What were the various parts of the decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford? What is the connection of the 14th Amendment to this court decision?
10. What did the Wilmot Proviso attempt to do, and why?
11. What were the major causes of distrust of the 2nd Bank of the US, and why did Andrew Jackson veto its recharter?
12. What were the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, and why were they criticized as partisan (as well as unconstitutional)?
13. What was the nation’s first third party, and why was it significant?
14. What were the main features of Jacksonian Democracy?
15. What was Andrew Jackson’s stance on nullification?
16. What necessitated the Compromise of 1850, and what were its main features?
17. What exactly was the purpose of the Mayflower Compact?
18. What were the main differences in the political beliefs of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson?
19. Why was the tension over slavery exacerbated each time the US added territory? Be able to give examples.
20. What was the history of the idea of nullification in United States history?
21. What is the difference between the philosophies of strict and loose construction of the Constitution?
22. What were Thomas Jefferson’s original plans for purchasing territory from France, and why did he seek this territory?
23. What was the reason why Andrew Jackson supported the Indian Removal Act of 1830?
24. What was the basis for disputes over tariffs during the first century of American government?
25. What actions were taken against white resistance to Reconstruction?
26. What important precedents were set during the administration of George Washington?
27. What were the main sources of political scandal during the Gilded Age?
28. What conditions encouraged the growth of industry in the post-Civil War period?
29. How did the legacy of the Civil War influence political power from 1865 to 1900?
30. How were the reasons for settling the southern colonies different from the reasons for settling New England?

Discuss amongst yourselves. You can use the comments section if you wish. Peace!

The Underground Railroad

Pretty good work from students.

Multicultural History of the US: After the Civil War

How immigration exploded in the US from the Civil War onward. A good review of social history, a major strand in AP US history.

Review of Reconstruction period

Mr. Wallace explains it all about the period of Reconstruction and the Gilded Age!

Chapter 24 questions

Be sure you answer these thoroughly and thoughtfully for your own benefit. Due Monday, December 13.

Questions Chapter 24

1. Let’s do a little math, in the spirit of NCLB: By what percentge did the amount of railroad track in the US increase between 1865 and 1900? What was the ratio of acres granted by the federal government to the miles of track laid? What conclusions can you draw from these two figures?
2. How did the railroads manage to hog more land than that to which they were actually entitled? What did the government get in return for this? Outline the debate over whether this was justified.
3. How did the Civil War influence railroad construction? What was the difference between the way that the transcontinental railroad was financed versus the previous explanation on pp. 530-531?
4. Read carefully and think: Why was the Union Pacific Railroad generally paid less per mile of construction than the Central Pacific? Who laid the most miles of track, and why? What was the difference in the laborers primarily used by the 2 companies?
5. By 1895, how many transcontinental railroads were there? Ordering them from north to south, name them and their date of completion. Why was investing in railroad construction a risky proposition?
6. What technological advances were derived from the railroads? What other industries benefitted from the growth of the railroads?
7. How did railroads both encourage urban growth and the settling of the Great Plains?
8. What corrupt practices did railroads engage in, and why couldn’t they be stopped?
9. Was the Gilded Age TRULY a time of “laissez-faire?” Explain.
10. Page 538 labels this period “the second American industrial revolution.” When was the first? What advances revolutionized American industry during this second phase?
11. Describe and contrast the two methods developed by Carnegie and Rockefeller to maximize profits and control.
12. What factors led to America becoming the dominant steel producer in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? What city was the center of steel production(and how did that eventually influence professional football)?
13. How was the United States Steel Corporation created?
14. How did trusts work? What industries were dominated by trusts?
15. How did some religious and business leaders justify the amassing of so much wealth by tycoons? What then was the logical implication for those who were poor?
16. How did the 14th Amendment help corporations based on the late 19th century interpretation of it?
17. What was the difference between “good” and “bad” trusts? What two laws attempted to weaken trusts, and why weren’t they effective?
18. Why didn’t the South benefit as much as the North from the industrial development of the late 19th century?
19. What factors worked against the growth of unions in the late 19th century? Be thorough in your answer.
20. How did Samuel Gompers design the AF of L to succeed in ways that previous unions had not?
21. In what ways was the economic and business situation described in this chapter similar to today’s economic climate?
22. Thomas Jefferson and others of our founders warned that those who worked for wages would be nothing but “wage slaves.” Evaluate the accuracy of this belief based on conditions in the late 19th century.

Chapter 23 (AND 24!!!) Terms

Ooopsie. Here are the terms for chapter 23. Your terms check will now be on Wednesday!!!! (These are also on the Semester 1 tab)

I have also included the chapter 24 terms, even though they are also on the tab for semester 2)

Ulysses S. Grant , greenbacks,“Ohio Idea”
“waving the bloody shirt,” repudiation, speculation
Jay Cooke, “Black Friday,” Chester Arthur
William Belknap, general amnesty act, Panic of 1873
contraction, Half-Breeds, Civil Rights Act/Cases
tenant farming, crop lien system, “equal protection clause”
Roscoe Conkling, Jim Fisk, Grover Cleveland
Jay Gould, Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield
cheap money, hard/sound money, Gilded Age
spoils system, Resumption Act, Stalwart
Tweed Ring, Whiskey Ring, Greenback Labor Party
Compromise of 1877, Pendleton Act, Liberal Republicans
Blank- Allison Act, Credit Mobilier, Tammany Hall
great railroad strike, Chinese Exclusion Act, Mugwumps
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Analyze the corruption of the Gilded Age in relation to the increasingly low moral and political standards of the time. Contrast the quality of politicians with those of the previous age.
— Examine the presidential elections of the period in relation to the fierce competition of the third party system.
— Trace the history of the Fourteenth Amendment. Why is it one of the most significant parts of the Constitution?

Chapter 24, Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Union Pacific Railroad—–Central Pacific Railroad—–Big Four
Collis Huntington—–Thomas Edison—–John Pierpont Morgan
Terence V. Powderly—–Andrew Carnegie—–John Altgeld
Interstate Commerce Act—–trust —–Bessemer process
“Drake’s Folly” —–Sherman Antitrust Act—–Gibson Girl
lockout—–company town—–National Labor Union
American Fed. of Labor—–Haymarket riot—–Knights of Labor
Samuel Gompers—–Mary Harris Jones—– “closed shop”
Cornelius Vanderbilt—–John D. Rockefeller—–Jay Gould
vertical integration—–horizontal integration—–pool
rebate —–interlocking directorate—–injunction
standard time—–US Steel—–Gospel of Wealth
the Grange—–William Graham Sumner —–yellow dog contract
American Federation of Labor—–New South
Northern Pacific Railroad—–Great Northern Railroad
James J. Hill—–“wedding of the rails”—-“Paddies”
Pullman Palace Cars—–“stock watering” —– Colored National Labor Union
scabs—– “Pittsburgh plus” pricing—– Birmingham steel
piecework—– James B. Duke—–Herbert Spencer
“Social Darwinism” —–Russell Conwell—–plutocracy
“Napoleon of the Smokestacks” —– “survival of the fittest”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Explain the central role of the railroads in late 19th century America.
— Examine the dramatic impact of “big business” and the new industrial corporations on the American economy and American life in general.
— Examine the gains and losses for various groups (business, labor, women, minorities, immigrants) accruing from industrialization.

Chapter 23 Outlines

Outline Notes Chapter 23

This will be due Tuesday, December 7!!!!!

I. How is Grant assessed as a president?
—–A. Why did he receive so much support for so long?
———-Gratitude toward him for CW, GAR, straight party tickets
—–B. “Grantism” means corruption in the Era of Good Stealings—explain each one of these:
———-Credit Mobilier, Whiskey Ring, Belknap
—–C. Why was the country giving up on Reconstruction?

II. “All politics is local…” Reformers battle political machines
—–A. Era of Good Stealings- what did that mean?
—–B. Boss Tweed
———-His crimes, the price voters paid, Thomas Nast, and Samuel “Whispering Sammy” Tilden
—–C. George Washington Plunkitt’s philosophy of ethics
—–D. The Liberal Republicans arise to clean up the mess
———-What did they want? What was the “conclave of cranks?”
—–E. Horace Greeley
———-Who was he? Whose nominee was he? Why did he get vilified?
—–F. What does “The Gilded Age” mean?
———-Mark Twain
—–G. “Stalwarts” versus “Half-Breeds”
———-Conkling, Blaine, and what each stood for
———-How is this struggle related to political machines and corruption?
———-How does this struggle eventually cause the death of a president?
—–H. Hayes-Tilden clash for the presidency
———-Importance of Ohio, popular vote
———-Electoral vote misdeeds (Florida, LA and SC all have what in common?)
—–I. The Compromise of 1877
———-Electoral Count Act, Justice Davis
———-Democrat- Republican dealmaking

III. Financial Collapses
—–A. Fisk, Gould and gold
—–B. Jay Cooke
—–C. Freedmen’s Saving and Trust Company
—–D. Inflationary policies—you’ll need to explain these
———-Inflation during the war and after the war
———-Cheap money, hard money, gold versus silver
———-Crime of ’73
———-Resumption Act of 1875
———-Bland –Allison Act
—–E. How does this monetary unrest lead to the founding of the Greenback Labor Party?

IV. The Reign of “The Forgettable Presidents”
—–A. End of Reconstruction and Hayes
———-Civil Rights Act of 1875, Civil Rights Cases (1883) and its effects
———-tactics used to disenfranchise black voters
———-Jim Crow laws
———-lynching (see chart p. 522)
———-Plessy v. Ferguson
———-When was the “second Reconstruction,” and why was it necessary?
—–B. Population changes cause unrest
———-Great RR strike 1877
———-Chinese workers
———-nativist Kearneyites
—–C. “The Canal Boy” and the “Prince:” Garfield and Arthur
———-Why is Ohio still important?
———-Garfield’s choice of Arthur as a running mate
———-Civil Service reform
—–D. The Pendleton Act and its significance
———-Republican party and reform—oxymorons?
—–E. “Grover the Good”- Dems take over
———-Why do the Dems take over?
———-How does the Democratic party start becoming a national party again? The 3 Rs…
———-Struggling with the Pension Bureau: the power of the GAR
———-Ending the Treasury surplus—tariffs
———-Dawes Act aims to tie down the Indians
———-Interstate Commerce Act—why is it important?
———-Fraud in the election of 1888