Archive for March, 2011

Chapter 38- the 60s outlines

I. Why does the “youth culture” transform into the “counterculture?”
A. Kennedy- symbol of youth
1. clarion call—“ask not…”
B. What role do southern Democrats in Congress play?
C. Civil Rights
1. Freedom Riders
2. FBI response
3. Voter Education Project
4. Ole Miss tries to bar the door…
5. “Bombingham,” Bull Conner, and segregation
6. “I Have a Dream…”
D. Kennedy—the death of a dream?
E. Freedom Summer and Mississippi Burning….
1. 24th Amendment
2. Miss. Freedom Democratic Party
3. March on Selma
4. Voting Rights Act 1965
F. Black Power
1. from MLK to Medgar to Malcolm—how is the second wave different? (What do these three all have in common?)
2. Black Panthers
3. Riots
4. Difference between northern and southern blacks’ concerns
G. Resistance to Vietnam
1. “Children’s Crusade” in ’68
2. “Trust no one over…”
3. Free Speech Movement
4. SDS
H. S–, D—-, and R— and R—

II. Kennedy versus the Commies
A. Khrushchev’s attitude
B. Berlin Wall
C. Common Market and “Atlantic Community”
1. What IS it with the French?
2. “Brushfire wars”—where and why?
D. ‘Nam an “flexible response”
1. How did we get into Vietnam?
2. WHY?
E. What was the purpose of the Alliance for Progress?
F. Bay of Pigs and Missiles in “Cuber?”
G. In the end, how do we assess Kennedy?
1. Foreign policy
2. Domestic policy

III. Johnson Takes Over, Surprises (and Dismays) Many
A. CRA of 1964
1. What is affirmative action?
C. “War on Poverty” and the “Great Society”
1. What were the main programs?
2. Entitlement” and other effects
D. Criticism of Johnson by the GOP in 1964
1. Barry Goldwater—In Your Guts…
E. How does Vietnam eventually bring LBJ low?
F. In the end, how do we assess Johnson?
1. Foreign policy
2. Domestic policy

IV. Vietnam
1. Escalation
2. Tonkin Gulf
3. Rolling Thunder
4. Hawks, Doves, and Dominoes
1. McNamara
2. Eugene McCarthy and J. William Fulbright
5. Draft Dodgers
6. How do you “save” Vietnam by destroying it?

V. Nixon? During the Counterculture? Why?

The significance of the GI Bill in American life

Go here ( to read historian Milton Greenberg on how the GI Bill affected American society.

Although copies were handed out in class, here are the questions over this reading in case you lose them. These are due Friday. Make sure you do your own work and answer thoroughly.

Questions for Understanding

1. (Background research) What were the specific provisions of the GI Bill of Rights? What was its other name?

2.  What group was instrumental in getting this law passed? What was the history of this organization? (You can use your book and previous class notes as well as the internet)

3. What previous historical events influenced support for this bill? Explain why these events increased support for this program.

4.  How was this law “democratic?” Was this a “radical” expansion of government power? Explain.

5. How much was the unemployment insurance? What was the justification for this? What were fears about the precedent this set?

6. What impact did this have on higher education and attitudes toward education? Be completely thorough in your answer.


7.  What kind of help was offered to veterans who did not or could not go to college?


8. How did the GI Bill help change the real estate market?

Video: The March on Washington

You can read the speech as you watch for full effect.

Video: MLK’s last speech

Given the night before he was assassinated in 1968.

Here is Walter Cronkite, the greatest newsman of that time, reporting Dr. King’s assassination to the world:

Outbursts of sorrow and rage then lit up America as riots broke out in some cities in America.

Video: The Marshall Plan

A Short propaganda video about the Marshall Plan. And why was this necessary? Here’s an explanation:

Powerpoint over Cold War

It’s pretty good! •

McCarthy Overview and Interview

Herb Block (Herblock was his penname) was a famous editorial cartoonist in the mid-to-late 20th century. He coined the term “McCarthyism” with this cartoon:

What does the elephant symbolize? What does the tower of tar buckets imply? What is Herblock basically saying about McCarthyism?

Here is an interview of Senator Joseph McCarthy discussing his crusade against communism:

This can also be found at

McCarthy’s downfall was accusing the Army of harboring communists and their sympathizers. Finally, the attorney for the Army, Joseph Welch, says what so many others hadn’t had the guts to say to McCarthy in the clip below, which has become famous. (To set the stage, the Army counter-accused McCarthy of seeking special favors for an associate who had been drafted, and to deflect blame, he accuse Welch himself of harboring a suspected communist sympathizer in his own law office rather than answer the charges against him. Here’s the video, with Mr. Welch being the first speaker:

(This can also be found at There are other videos linked to this page listed to the left hand side of the page at youtube if you wish to explore further.)

… and here’s a link to a site that gives the transcript of this confrontation, which is considered to be one of the greatest American speeches:

McCarthy then swiftly fell from power, and the Senate voted to censure him by a 2/3 supermajority. Here is the text of Senate Resolution 301:

So what eventually happened to McCarthy? Spartacus does a great job summing up his life and death: