Archive for April, 2011

Summer Pell Grants cut this year

As we discussed in class, one of the ways that the budget was cut by $40 billion in the first years of the Reagan administration was through cutting Pell Grants. These are GRANTS of money to needy students for college tuition, which means they do not have to be paid back as a loan would be. This morning the news was that this program will be cut for the upcoming summer semester as part of the budget deal that was signed a couple of weeks ago. Here’s the story:

Figuring out how to pay for college is the bane of most college students’ existence. Many rely on loans, grants and scholarships to pay for their schooling. One financial aid option that a large number of students rely upon may not be an option in 2012. In President Obama’s 2012 budget proposal, summer Pell Grants are on the chopping block.

The Federal Pell Grant Program provides need-based grants to low-income students seeking higher education. As in many other need-based government programs, like Welfare, family income is examined, and the amount of funding given to the student is accordingly divvied out.

The Pell Grant Program expanded just last year to allow students to use two Pell Grants per year – one for summer and one for the regular academic year – in an effort to lift graduation rates. Since there is no proof of any increase, and since the nation is in a deficit, the administration decided the addition was superfluous.

The proposal was made in response to the House Republicans’ legislation to cut the maximum allowable award from $5500 to $4500 for the remainder of the 2011 fiscal year, which ends in September. The Obama budget for 2012 would keep the maximum award at $5500 but cut summer funding instead.

Students would still have the option of using their Pell Grants for summer classes, but they would then not be able to use Pell Grant funds to pay for tuition during the regular school year…..

For more information on Pell Grants, To find out if you are eligible for a Pell Grant or other federal assistance, fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) at fafsa.ed.gov.

Here is the link to the article from the Post-Dispatch today: http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/education/article_48b13288-a86d-5a23-a281-1acbd326c461.html

And here is analysis from the NYT on why the President would agree to this: http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/02/14/why-obama-would-cut-summer-aid/

Advertisements

Reagan’s address on Iran- Contra

Regan gave this address in March of 1987 on the Iran-contra scandal.

41 Outlines- for extra credit by Monday

You may get extra extra credit for doing these in FRQ form– concentrate on creating a strong thesis statement answering the prompt.

These are due MONDAY, MAY 2!!!!! Do these instead of terms.

I. The presidency of Bill Clinton- was it a success?
A. The campaign- why wasn’t “41” re-elected?
1. What was Ross Perot’s stake, and what did he accomplish?
B. How did Clinton take risks?
1. What’s a “new Democrat?”
2. What were his early failures?
3. Was the First Lady a help or a hindrance?
C. What happened with the budget?
D. Violence and crime challenges
1. Brady Bill
2. Showdown at Waco
3. Oklahoma City and Timothy McVeigh
4. Columbine
5. A Million Moms
E. The Republican opposition and the Contract With America
1. What did it promise?
2. What happened in Congress?
3. What’s an “unfunded mandate?”
4. Reform- too much or not enough?
5. End results?
F. Taking on entitlements
1. Welfare
2. Affirmative Action
G. Economics
1. dot.coms go wild
2. free trade or protectionism?
3. the challenge of globalism (see China)
H. Foreign troubles
1. China
2. Haiti
3. Somalia
4. Rwanda
5. What does “Balkanization” mean? (Use a dictionary)
6. Israel and the PLO
I. Whitewater and Monica Lewinski
1. What are “high crimes and misdemeanors?”
J. Ultimately, was Clinton a failure?

II. The presidency of George W. Bush- how do you predict history will judge this administration?
A. The election- what went wrong?
B. What are red states and blue states?
C. Which party is in charge?
D. 9/11
1. What was Al Qaeda?
2. Who was bin Laden?
3. How was Afghanistan involved?
4. Why was the Patriot Act passed?
5. What was the purpose of Guantanamo?
E. Why did we invade Iraq?
1. WMD and terror
2. Saddam Hussein and the Bush family legacy
3. Did the UN fail?
4. Can we “nation-build?”

F. Equality and Fairness at home- what were the Bollinger cases?
G. What problems faced both parties by 2004?

I hope you are all safe

It looks like the area around our school was seriously affected by last night’s storms. Those of us in the Willow Brook area escaped damage. As the day wears on we will know more. Thanks be for basements.

I hope you are all safe and dry. All those affected by these storms are in my thoughts and prayers.

It is times like this that the community comes together, and we all demonstrate “the better angels of our nature,” as Abraham Lincoln famously said.

Please let me know how you are if you can in the comments section if you happen to visit this site this weekend (using a pen name– I’ll figure it out since I alone will be able to see your email address). I am so glad that those of you who were at Holy Spirit were not hurt– our Good Friday service was held in our church’s basement all the way in U City.

Help each other.

I love you all. Bless you.

Scoop

More MC practice for review

Which of the following statements about Africans brought as slaves to the British North American colonies is true?

A. They were the primary labor source for plantations in the Chesapeake by 1630.

B. They had a much lower life expectancy in the Chesapeake than in South Carolina or the West Indies.

C. They greatly outnumbered Europeans in every colony south of the Mason-Dixon Line by 1776.

D. They maintained cultural practices brought from Africa.

E. They were the primary labor source in Pennsylvania until 1720.

___________________________________________________

In the seventeenth century, which of the following was true of slavery in British North America?

A. It was prohibited only in Massachusetts and Connecticut.

B. It was opposed by the Anglican church.

C. Slaves officially counted for more than thirty percent of the colonial population.

D. The number of slaves increased rapidly in the last quarter of the century.

E. Most slaves lived on plantations with fifty or more slaves.

___________________________________________________

Which of the following was true of the First Great Awakening?

A. It primarily affected church congregations in towns and cities.

B. Cotton Mather was one of its most famous preachers.

C. It was denounced by Jonathan Edwards.

D. It was primarily a southern phenomenon.

E. It resulted in divisions within both the Congregational and Presbyterian churches.

___________________________________________________

By the time of the American Revolution, most patriots had come to believe that, in republican government, sovereignty was located in

A. the people

B. Parliament

C. state governments

D. factions

E. a centralized government

___________________________________________________

The Navigation Acts were part of the British policy known as

A. isolationism

B. capitalism

C. mercantilism

D. monopolism

E. imperialism

___________________________________________________

After the Revolution, the concept of the “republican mother” suggested that

A. women should be responsible for raising their children, especially their sons, to be virtuous citizens of the young republic

B. voting would soon become a privilege granted to educated and/or married women

C. the first duty of mothers was to serve the needs of government

D. wives and mothers would be welcome in the emerging political parties

E. women’s virtues had been the inspiration for the ideals of the Revolution

___________________________________________________

All of the following contributed to discontent among soldiers in the Continental Army EXCEPT

A. most soldiers were draftees

B. the soldiers feared for the safety of their families back home

C. the army had inadequate arms and ammunition

D. the army paid soldiers in depreciated paper money

E. the army was inadequately fed and clothed

___________________________________________________

The principal reason for drafting the Bill of Rights was the desire to

A. test the new process of amendment described in the new constitution

B. protect rights nor specified in the Constitution

C. strengthen the power of the federal government

D. restore to the states the powers they had enjoyed under the Articles of Confederation

E. clarify the federal relationship among the states

___________________________________________________

President Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 was issued in response to

A. Spanish expansion in the Southeast

B. Dutch economic activity in the mid-Atlantic states

C. Canadian alliances with northern American Indians

D. French diplomatic overtures to invoke the Franco-American Alliance

E. English boycotts of selected American manufactures

___________________________________________________

The issuance of the Monroe Doctrine did which of the following?

A. reaffirmed George Washington’s goal of United States neutrality in the Americas

B. helped Secretary of State John Quincy Adams secure the presidency in 1824

C. established the United States as the dominant economic power in South America

D. provided the basis for resolving Anglo-American border disputes

E. asserted American independence in the realm of foreign policy

___________________________________________________

Andrew Jackson supported all of the following EXCEPT

A. Indian removal

B. the right of nullification

C. the removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States

D. annexation of new territory

E. use of the presidential veto power

___________________________________________________

In the early 1830s, the majority of workers in the textile mills of Massachusetts were

A. young unmarried women from rural New England

B. newly arrived immigrants from Ireland

C. men who were heads of households

D. married women whose children were of school age

E. free African Americans from urban areas

___________________________________________________

Which of the following led immediately and directly Theodore Roosevelt’s issuance of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine?

A. Pancho Villa’s armed raids into Texas and New Mexico

B. General Augusto Sandino’s insurrection against American troops occupying Nicaragua

C. the arrest of an unarmed party of American sailors in Tampico, Mexico

D. American concern that a Japanese syndicate would attempt to purchase land near the Panama Canal

E. American fear that financial instability in the Dominican Republic would lead to European intervention

___________________________________________________

Which of the following best characterizes the writers associated with the literary flowering of the 1920s, such as Sinclair Lewis and F. Scott Fitzgerald?

A. sympathy for Protestant fundamentalism

B. nostalgia for the “good old days”

C. commitment for the cause of racial equality

D. advocacy of cultural isolationism

E. criticism of middle-class conformity and materialism

___________________________________________________

President Herbert Hoover approached the task of caring for unemployed workers during the Great Depression by

A. emphasizing the importance of private charities

B. asking large corporations to hire war veterans

C. relying on the services of federal welfare agencies

D. enlarging the federal government’s payroll

E. reactivating the dole

Practice MC from class 4/19- 4/20

MC practice- Midterm exam 2 edition

Scoopmire APUSH

1. Which of the following was true of the Northeast American Indian tribes at the time Europeans first began colonization?

A. Their economies depended entirely on hunting and gathering.

B. Their political and linguistic differences hindered their united opposition to the Europeans.

C. Their populations were immune to European diseases.

D. Their warriors rarely engaged in intertribal warfare.

E. Their cultures made no distinction between men’s work and women’s work.

2. Settlers who established the British colony in Virginia during the seventeenth century were primarily seeking to

A. recreate an Old World feudalistic society in the New World

B. create a perfect religious commonwealth as an example to the rest of the world

C. create a refuge for political dissidents

D. profit economically

E. increase the glory of Great Britain

3. Which of the following was true of most Puritans who emigrated to seventeenth-century New England?

A. They had renounced the Church of England.

B. They rejected the authority of the English king.

C. They considered themselves non-Separatists.

D. They approved of the Crown’s religious policy.

E. They intended to return eventually to England.

4. Which of the following was true of a married woman in the colonial era?

A. She would be sentenced to a debtors’ prison for debts incurred by her husband.

B. She could vote as her husband’s proxy in elections.

C. She generally lost control of her property when she married.

D. She was the prime beneficiary by law of her husband’s estate.

E. Her legal rights over her children were the same as those of her husband.

5. The North American colonies took advantage of Great Britain’s policy of salutary neglect to

A. establish religious freedom as a fundamental right

B. work out trade arrangements to acquire needed products from other countries

C. introduce the practice of slavery into the New World

D. establish a standing army

E. make favorable territorial settlements with the French

6. The Proclamation of 1763 did which of the following?

A. introduced a tax on tea

B. prohibited colonists from producing iron for the American market

C. forbade all colonial trade with the French West Indies

D. set a boundary along the crest of the Appalachians beyond which the English colonists were forbidden to settle

E. announced the reorganization of the colonial office under Parliament, rather than directly under the King-in-Council

7. The primary purpose of the Stamp Act was to

A. raise revenues to support British troops stationed in America

B. reduce colonial consumption of foreign goods

C. fund the colonial postal system

D. impose a mercantilist system on the colonies

E. reduce the authority of the colonial legislatures

8. The Declaration of Independence did all of the following EXCEPT

A. appeal to the philosophy of natural rights

B. call for the abolition of the slave trade

C. appeal to the sympathies of the English people

D. criticize the provisions of the Quebec Act of 1774

E. accuse George III of tyranny

9. The greatest achievement of the government under the Articles of Confederation was its establishment of

A. a bicameral legislature

B. a system for orderly settlement of the West

C. general postwar prosperity

D. long-term sectional harmony

E. a termination date for the international slave trade

10. As originally ratified, the United States Constitution provided for

A. political parties

B. a presidential cabinet

C. the direct election of senators

D. an electoral college

E. a two-term presidential limit

11. In Marbury v. Madison, the United States Supreme Court affirmed

A. its right to determine the constitutionality of state court decisions

B. its right to determine the constitutionality of state laws

C. its right to determine the constitutionality of congressional enactments

D. the sanctity of property rights against harassment by unfriendly state legislatures

E. the broad scope of the federal government’s commerce power

12. The financial programs of Alexander Hamilton included all of the following EXCEPT

A. funding of the national debt

B. nullification of al private debts to the states

C. imposition of a tax on distilled liquor

D. establishment of the Bank of the United States

E. assumption of all state debts

13. Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to

A. remove the French from forts along the Mississippi Valley

B. acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops

C. acquire territory for the expansion of slavery

D. oppose New England Federalism

E. demonstrate friendship for the French in the Napoleonic Wars

14. When Thomas Jefferson said in 1801, “We are all republicans—we are all federalists,” he meant that

A. Americans would never ally themselves with monarchial governments

B. federalists would be appointed to his cabinet

C. the two parties’ platforms were identical

D. the principles of American government were above party politics

E. he admired Hamilton’s policies

15. The issuance of the Monroe Doctrine did which of the following?

A. reaffirmed George Washington’s goal of United States neutrality in the Americas

B. helped Secretary of State John Quincy Adams secure the presidency in 1824

C. established the United States as the dominant economic power in South America

D. provided the basis for resolving Anglo-American border disputes

E. asserted American independence in the realm of foreign policy

16. Jacksonian Democracy was distinguished by the belief that

A. an aristocracy posed no danger to the Republic

B. the National Republicans alone knew what was right for the people

C. political participation  by the common man should be increased

D. political rights should be granted by women

E. franchise restrictions should be racially neutral

17. Which of the following statements about the “American System” is correct?

A. It was set up by the Treaty of Ghent at the end of the War of 1812.

B. It was strongly promoted by Andrew Jackson.

C. It permitted immigrants to be naturalized after living in the United States for five years.

D. It was designed to meet the nation’s need for economic progress and self-sufficiency.

E. It called for an end to the European presence in South America.

The Iran-contra affair

Here is a report by independent counsel Lawrence Walsh explaining the most important points of the Iran-contra affair. Remember, Congress had passed the Boland Amendment forbidding the use of government funds to supports the right-wing militias fighting against the communist Sandinistas in Nicaragua.

Executive Summary of the Iran-contra Affair

Report by Lawrence E. Walsh, independent counsel

In October and November 1986, two secret U.S. Government operations were publicly exposed, potentially implicating Reagan Administration officials in illegal activities. These operations were the provision of assistance to the military activities of the Nicaraguan contra rebels during an October 1984 to October 1986 prohibition on such aid, and the sale of U.S. arms to Iran in contravention of stated U.S. policy and in possible violation of arms-export controls. In late November 1986, Reagan Administration officials announced that some of the proceeds from the sale of U.S. arms to Iran had been diverted to the contras.

As a result of the exposure of these operations, Attorney General Edwin Meese III sought the appointment of an independent counsel to investigate and, if necessary, prosecute possible crimes arising from them.

The Special Division of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit appointed Lawrence E. Walsh as Independent Counsel on December 19, 1986, and charged him with investigating:

(1) the direct or indirect sale, shipment, or transfer since in or about 1984 down to the present, of military arms, materiel, or funds to the government of Iran, officials of that government, persons, organizations or entities connected with or purporting to represent that government, or persons located in Iran;

(2) the direct or indirect sale, shipment, or transfer of military arms, materiel or funds to any government, entity, or person acting, or purporting to act as an intermediary in any transaction referred to above;

(3) the financing or funding of any direct or indirect sale, shipment or transfer referred to above;

(4) the diversion of proceeds from any transaction described above to or for any person, organization, foreign government, or any faction or body of insurgents in any foreign country, including, but not limited to Nicaragua;

(5) the provision or coordination of support for persons or entities engaged as military insurgents in armed conflict with the government of Nicaragua since 1984.

This is the final report of that investigation.

Overall Conclusions

The investigations and prosecutions have shown that high-ranking Administration officials violated laws and executive orders in the Iran/contra matter.

Independent Counsel concluded that:

•the sales of arms to Iran contravened United States Government policy and may have violated the Arms Export Control Act1

•the provision and coordination of support to the contras violated the Boland Amendment ban on aid to military activities in Nicaragua;

•the policies behind both the Iran and contra operations were fully reviewed and developed at the highest levels of the Reagan Administration;

•although there was little evidence of National Security Council level knowledge of most of the actual contra-support operations, there was no evidence that any NSC member dissented from the underlying policykeeping the contras alive despite congressional limitations on contra support;

•the Iran operations were carried out with the knowledge of, among others, President Ronald Reagan, Vice President George Bush, Secretary of State George P. Shultz, Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger, Director of Central Intelligence William J. Casey, and national security advisers Robert C. McFarlane and John M. Poindexter; of these officials, only Weinberger and Shultz dissented from the policy decision, and Weinberger eventually acquiesced by ordering the Department of Defense to provide the necessary arms; and

•large volumes of highly relevant, contemporaneously created documents were systematically and willfully withheld from investigators by several Reagan Administration officials.

Following the revelation of these operations in October and November 1986, Reagan Administration officials deliberately deceived the Congress and the public about the level and extent of official knowledge of and support for these operations.

In addition, Independent Counsel concluded that the off-the-books nature of the Iran and contra operations gave line-level personnel the opportunity to commit money crimes.

Prosecutions

In the course of Independent Counsel’s investigation, 14 persons were charged with criminal violations. There were two broad classes of crimes charged: Operational crimes, which largely concerned the illegal use of funds generated in the course of the operations, and “cover-up” crimes, which largely concerned false statements and obstructions after the revelation of the operations. Independent Counsel did not charge violations of the Arms Export Control Act or Boland Amendment. Although apparent violations of these statutes provided the impetus for the cover-up, they are not criminal statutes and do not contain any enforcement provisions.

All of the individuals charged were convicted, except for one CIA official whose case was dismissed on national security grounds and two officials who received unprecedented pre-trial pardons by President Bush following his electoral defeat in 1992. Two of the convictions were reversed on appeal on constitutional grounds that in no way cast doubt on the factual guilt of the men convicted. The individuals charged and the disposition of their cases are:

(1) Robert C. McFarlane: pleaded guilty to four counts of withholding information from Congress;

(2) Oliver L. North: convicted of altering and destroying documents, accepting an illegal gratuity, and aiding and abetting in the obstruction of Congress; conviction reversed on appeal;

(3) John M. Poindexter: convicted of conspiracy, false statements, destruction and removal of records, and obstruction of Congress; conviction reversed on appeal;

(4) Richard V. Secord: pleaded guilty to making false statements to Congress;

(5) Albert Hakim: pleaded guilty to supplementing the salary of North;

(6) Thomas G. Clines: convicted of four counts of tax-related offenses for failing to report income from the operations;

(7) Carl R. Channell: pleaded guilty to conspiracy to defraud the United States;

(8) Richard R. Miller: pleaded guilty to conspiracy to defraud the United States;

(9) Clair E. George: convicted of false statements and perjury before Congress;

(10) Duane R. Clarridge: indicted on seven counts of perjury and false statements; pardoned before trial by President Bush;

(11) Alan D. Fiers, Jr.: pleaded guilty to withholding information from Congress;

(12) Joseph F. Fernandez: indicted on four counts of obstruction and false statements; case dismissed when Attorney General Richard L. Thornburgh refused to declassify information needed for his defense;

(13) Elliott Abrams: pleaded guilty to withholding information from Congress;

(14) Caspar W. Weinberger: charged with four counts of false statements and perjury; pardoned before trial by President Bush.

At the time President Bush pardoned Weinberger and Clarridge, he also pardoned George, Fiers, Abrams, and McFarlane.

The Basic Facts of Iran/contra

The Iran/contra affair concerned two secret Reagan Administration policies whose operations were coordinated by National Security Council staff. The Iran operation involved efforts in 1985 and 1986 to obtain the release of Americans held hostage in the Middle East through the sale of U.S. weapons to Iran, despite an embargo on such sales. The contra operations from 1984 through most of 1986 involved the secret governmental support of contra military and paramilitary activities in Nicaragua, despite congressional prohibition of this support.

The Iran and contra operations were merged when funds generated from the sale of weapons to Iran were diverted to support the contra effort in Nicaragua. Although this “diversion” may be the most dramatic aspect of Iran/contra, it is important to emphasize that both the Iran and contra operations, separately, violated United States policy and law.2 The ignorance of the “diversion” asserted by President Reagan and his Cabinet officers on the National Security Council in no way absolves them of responsibility for the underlying Iran and contra operations.

The secrecy concerning the Iran and contra activities was finally pierced by events that took place thousands of miles apart in the fall of 1986. The first occurred on October 5, 1986, when Nicaraguan government soldiers shot down an American cargo plane that was carrying military supplies to contra forces; the one surviving crew member, American Eugene Hasenfus, was taken into captivity and stated that he was employed by the CIA. A month after the Hasenfus shootdown, President Reagan’s secret sale of U.S. arms to Iran was reported by a Lebanese publication on November 3. The joining of these two operations was made public on November 25, 1986, when Attorney General Meese announced that Justice Department officials had discovered that some of the proceeds from the Iran arms sales had been diverted to the contras.

When these operations ended, the exposure of the Iran/contra affair generated a new round of illegality. Beginning with the testimony of Elliott Abrams and others in October 1986 and continuing through the public testimony of Caspar W. Weinberger on the last day of the congressional hearings in the summer of 1987, senior Reagan Administration officials engaged in a concerted effort to deceive Congress and the public about their knowledge of and support for the operations.