Archive for April, 2011

150th Anniversary of the Start of the Civil War

Today, April 12, 2011 marks the sesquicentennial of the first shots being fired in the US Civil War. At 4:30 am, Edmund Ruffin, a fascinating character in his own right as a scientist as well as a fire-eater, was given the honor of firing the first shots on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor.

Here is the carving on Stone Mountain, GA (mentioned in the I Have A Dream speech!) commemorating Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Jefferson Davis. Try to guess where the funding for this carving originated?

Here is a link about the battle:

Here ( is an interesting link about the Sons of Confederate Veterans’ attempt to get a commemorative license plate of General Nathan Bedford Forrest (Run, Forrest! Run!) and the controversy over this, since he was also a founder of the Klu Klux Klan.

150th anniversary of start of Civil War on April 12


CHARLESTON, South Carolina (Reuters) – At dawn on Tuesday, re-enactors dressed and armed as Confederate soldiers will fire cannons toward Fort Sumter, commemorating the first shots of the Civil War 150 years ago.

Fired on April 12, 1861, the original shots launched the four-year conflict that divided the country, claimed 620,000 American lives and freed the slaves.

Visitors are expected to arrive in the historic port city of Charleston, South Carolina, for the commemorative and education sesquicentennial events starting this weekend.

Organizers have spent two years crafting the occasion as a solemn nod to the past, inclusive of all those whose lives were affected by the war.

“Whatever we do, it can’t look like 1961,” said Michael Allen, education specialist with the National Parks Service.

In 1961 in the deeply segregated South, the city’s 100th anniversary of the start of the Civil War looked like a party. It included a fireworks show, a parade of marching bands, costumed Southern belles and rebel soldiers, and waving of Confederate flags.

“No visitor in town could have doubted he was in Dixie,” the (Charleston) News and Courier reported at the time.

The next year, the Confederate battle flag was raised over the statehouse dome in the capital city of Columbia, where it remained until protests brought it down just a decade ago.

The 150th anniversary events in Charleston will set a different tone, officials said. The National Parks Service’s theme for the sesquicentennial is “Civil War to Civil Rights,” and Allen said he has reached out to the NAACP as well as the Sons of Confederate Veterans.

“It’s not a celebratory time,” said Charleston Mayor Joseph P. Riley Jr.

South Carolina in 1860 was the first state to secede from the Union in order to protect the institution of slavery, then the cornerstone of the South’s agrarian economy.

“We are at a place where historic events happened,” Riley said. “We are prepared to begin to relive these events and to learn from them. It will be instructive and beneficial, and it will be moving.”

But not everyone is on the same page. On Thursday, Charleston Democratic state Senator Robert Ford upset fellow black leaders when he took the podium in the statehouse with a Confederate flag in his hand.

Ford urged African Americans to celebrate the sesquicentennial, saying the start of the Civil War signaled the end of slavery. The head of Charleston’s NAACP called Ford’s remarks “ludicrous.”

The coming week will feature outdoor concerts, lectures by historians, films, theater, art exhibits, ceremonies and encampments of Union and Confederate re-enactors.

An outdoor concert on Monday night will include spiritual ensembles, Civil War tunes and a symphony performance of Aaron Copland’s “Lincoln’s Portrait.”

Other states that were part of Civil War history — from Georgia, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia to Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, New York and New Jersey — also have plans to remember the war.

“But the start of the war means that the eyes of the entire country and perhaps the world are going to be on us,” said Perrin Lawson, deputy director of the Charleston Area Convention and Visitors Bureau.

The budget stalemate in Congress could put a kink in the sesquicentennial plans. A federal government partial shutdown would close the Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie national monuments to visitors.

Tour boats to Fort Sumter, which sits in the middle of the Charleston Harbor, would not be able to land, said Chip Campsen, owner of Fort Sumter Tours and a Republican state senator from Charleston.

“It is the most inopportune time (for a shutdown),” Campsen said. “The 150th anniversary only comes around once. But we need to deal with our federal budget mess.”

A shutdown would also mean hundreds of Civil War re-enactors could not camp at the forts or recreate the surrender of Fort Sumter by Union Major Robert Anderson to Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard, Anderson’s former artillery student at West Point.

“We need to do those soldiers justice on both sides, because both of them were fighting for a cause they believed in,” said Randy Burbage, a veteran Confederate re-enactor.

Re-enactors can still carry out plans to fire blanks from two dozen historic cannons throughout Tuesday. They will fire the cannons from Patriots Point, a World War II memorial across the river in Mount Pleasant.

The spot is historically inaccurate, Burbage said, but “it was the only place we could get permission.”

Chapter 39 Outlines

39 Outline
Stalemated Seventies

Answer the prompt for each Roman numeral in paragraph form. Use the details under it to help you know what to write. This will help you practice free-response skills. Make sure you answer the questions and consider the historical significance of events.

I. What were Nixon’s Foreign Relations Concerns?
—–A. How does he attempt to get us out of Vietnam?
———-1. Vietnamization
———-2. Nixon Doctrine
———-3. My Lai
———-4. Invasion of Cambodia what did he hope to accomplish?
—–B. Détente (What does that mean?)
———-1. Kissinger
———-2. ABM treaty
———-3. SALT
———-4. How committed are we really to de-armament?
—–C. “Opening” of China: genius?
———-1. Why?
———-2. How does this impact relations with Moscow?
———-a. “China card”
—–D. “Peace with honor” in Vietnam?
———-1. Bombings

II. Nixon’s Domestic Concerns
—–A. Cooling economy—explain factors
———-1. Wage and price freeze
———-2. End of gold standard
———-3. End of Bretton Woods system
—–B. The Warren Court leans left
———-1. Judicial activism
———-2. Southern criticism
———-3. Appointment of Berger disappoints
—–C. Social spending
———-1. AFDC
———-2. SSI
———-3. “indexing”
—–D. Anti-discrimination
———-1. “Philadelphia Plan” of 1969
———-2. What are “set-asides?”
———-3. Change in meaning of affirmative action
———-4. What is “reverse discrimination?”
—–E. Environmental concerns
———-1. Silent Spring
———-2. EPA
———-3. Clean Air Act
———-4. Endangered Species Act
—–F. OSHA- How does this change the lives of workers?

III. BIG SCANDALS!!!! What impact did these have upon the public perception of politicians as well as upon the office of the president?
—–A. The Watergate, CREEP and “dirty tricks”
—–B. indicted staffers
—–C. Nixon’s paranoia
———-1. enemies list
———-2. Ellsberg
———-3. “plumbers”
—–D. Sam Ervin’s investigation
———-1. John Dean
———-2. tapes
———-3. Archibald Cox and the “Saturday Night Massacre”
—–E. Agnew’s resignation
———-1. Was this an indictment of Nixon- or at least his judgment?
———-2. Gerald Ford and the 25th Amendment
—–F. Describe the Fall of Richard Nixon
—–G. Ford’s Actions and Achievements
———-1. The Pardon– Right or wrong?
———-2. Helsinki and Human Rights
———-3. Withdrawal from Vietnam

IV. James Earl Carter: How was his election a response to the problems of Nixon? Was he just too nice to be president?
—–A. Honesty– too honest?
—–B. Making peace in the Middle East
—–C. Inflation
—–D. Deficits
—–E. Response to the Energy Crisis
—–F. Hostages in Iran– and what effect did this have on Carter’s presidency?
———-1.– and on the election of 1980?

Practice MC for test over Cold War

1. Who did Johnson choose as his chief of staff for the War on Poverty– a person who had also been the first director of Kennedy’s Peace Corps?

A. Hubert Humphrey

B. Sargent Shriver

C. Robert Kennedy

D. Lady Bird Johnson

E. Harold Pinter


2. The main (civilian) architect of LBJ’s Vietnam strategy was the secretary of defense he inherited from Kennedy named

A. Robert McNamara

B. Howard Hughes

C. Edward Kennedy

D. James Earl Ray

E. Robert Frost


3. In 1956, the US condemned ____ as the aggressors in theSuez crisis.

A. Lebanon and Syria
B. the USSR and the Warsaw Pact
C. Britain and France
D. Egypt and Jordan
E. Israel and Turkey
4. The Paris summit conference scheduled for 1960 collapsed because of the
A. Suez crisis.
B. Bay of Pigs
C. Quemoy episode
D. launching of Sputnik
E. U-2 incident.
5. In response to Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anticommunist attacks, President Eisenhower
A. publicly denounced him only after he attacked General George Marshall.
B. quietly encouraged him to continue his attacks on Democrats.
C. publicly opposed his ruthless attacks but privately enjoyed McCarthy’s tactics.
D. allowed him to virtually control personnel policy at the State Department.
E. privately supported him but publicly kept his distance.
6. The 1955 Geneva Conference
A. unified the two Vietnams.
B. made Ngo Dinh Diem president of Vietnam.
C. called for two Vietnams to hold national elections within two years.
D. created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
E. established the permanent division of Vietnam.
7. Richard Nixon was selected as Eisenhower’s running mate in 1952 as a concession to 

A. hard-line anticommunists.
B. moderate Republicans.
C. southern Republicans.
D. liberal Republicans.
E. isolationists.
8. The origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between the US and the USSR over postwar arrangements in
A. Europe.
B. Asia.
C. Africa.
D. the Middle East.
E. the Third World.
9. Jiang Jeshi (Chiang Kai-shek) and the Nationalist government lost the Chinese civil war to the Communists mainly because
A. Jiang lost the support and confidence of the Chinese people.
B. the US failed to give the Nationalists aid.
C. the Communists received too much support from the USSR for the US to be able to match.
D. communists within the Truman administration undermined Jiang’s efforts.
E. Korean and Vietnamese communists fought alongside Chinese communists.
10. After the Cuban missile crisis, in a speech at American University in 1963, JFK recommended the adoption of a policy toward the USSR based on
A. mutually assured destruction.
B. massive retaliation.
C. peaceful coexistence.
D. gradual escalation.
E. flexible response.

Johnson ad on Poverty


Johnson explains what problems faces poor Americans.

“War on Poverty” speech

Proposal for A Nationwide War On The Sources of Poverty’
Lyndon B. Johnson’s Special Message to Congress, March 16, 1964

Because it is right, because it is wise, and because, for the first time in our history, it is possible to conquer poverty, I submit, for the consideration of the Congress and the country, the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964.

The Act does not merely expand old programs or improve what is already being done. It charts a new course. It strikes at the causes, not just the consequences of poverty. It can be a milestone in our one-hundred eighty year search for a better life for our people.

This Act provides five basic opportunities. It will give almost half a million underprivileged young Americans the opportunity to develop skills, continue education, and find useful work. It will give every American community the opportunity to develop a comprehensive plan to fight its own poverty-and help them to carry out their plans. It will give dedicated Americans the opportunity to enlist as volunteers in the war against poverty. It will give many workers and farmers the opportunity to break through particular barriers which bar their escape from poverty. It will give the entire nation the opportunity for a concerted attack on poverty through the establishment, tinder my direction, of the Office of Economic Opportunity, a national headquarters for the war against poverty.

This is how we propose to create these opportunities. First we will give high priority to helping young Americans who lack skills, who have not completed their education or who cannot complete it because they arc too poor. . . . I therefore recommend the creation of a Job Corps, a Work-Training Program, and a Work Study Program. A new national job Corps will build toward an enlistment of 100,000 young men. They will be drawn from those whose background, health and education make them least fit for useful work. . . . Half of these young men will work, in the first year, on special conservation projects to give them education, useful work experience and to enrich the natural resources of the country. Half of these young men will receive, in the first year, a blend of training, basic education and work experience in job Training Centers. . . .A new national Work-Training Program operated by the Department of Labor will provide work and training for 200,000 American men and women between the ages of 16 and 21. This will be developed through state and local governments and non-profit agencies. . . .A new national Work-Study Program operated by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare will provide federal funds for part-time jobs for 140,000 young Americans who do not go to college because they cannot afford it. There is no more senseless waste than the waste of the brainpower and skill of those who are kept from college by economic circumstance. Under this program they will, in a great American tradition, be able to work their way through school. . . .

Second, through a new Community Action program we intend to strike at poverty at its source – in the streets of our cities and on the farms of our countryside among the very young and the impoverished old. This program asks men and women throughout the country to prepare long-range plans for the attack on poverty in their own local communities. . . .

Third, I ask for the authority to recruit and train skilled volunteers for the war against poverty. Thousands of Americans have volunteered to serve the needs of other lands. Thousands more want the chance to serve the needs of their own land. They should have that chance. Among older people who have retired, as well as among the young, among women as well as men, there are many Americans who are ready to enlist in our war against poverty. They have skills and dedication. They are badly needed. . .

Fourth, we intend to create new opportunities for certain hard-hit groups to break out of the pattern of poverty. Through a new program of loans and guarantees we can provide incentives to those who will employ the unemployed. Through programs of work and retraining for unemployed fathers and mothers we can help them support their families in dignity while preparing themselves for new work. Through funds to purchase needed land, organize cooperatives, and create new and adequate family farms we can help those whose life on the land has been a struggle without hope.

Fifth, I do not intend that the war against poverty become a series of uncoordinated and unrelated efforts – that it perish for lack of leadership and direction. Therefore this bill creates, in the Executive Office of the President, a new Office of Economic Opportunity. Its Director will be my personal Chief of Staff for the War against poverty. I intend to appoint Sargent Shriver to this post. . . .

What you are being asked to consider is not a simple or an easy program. But poverty is not a simple or an easy enemy. It cannot be driven from the land by a single attack on a single front. Were this so we would have conquered poverty long ago. Nor can it be conquered by government alone. . . .

Today, for the first time in our history, we have the power to strike away the barriers to full participation in our society. Having the power, we have the duty .. . . . We are fully aware that this program will not eliminate all the poverty in America in a few months or a few years. Poverty is deeply rooted and its causes are many. But this program will show the way to new opportunities for millions of our fellow citizens. It will provide a lever with which we can begin to open the door to our prosperity for those who have been kept outside. It will also give us the chance to test our weapons, to try our energy and ideas and imagination for the many battles yet to come. As conditions change, and as experience illuminates our difficulties, we will be prepared to modify our strategy.

And this program is much more than a beginning. Rather it is a commitment. It is a total commitment by this President, and this Congress, and this nation, to pursue victory over the most ancient of mankind’s enemies.

Source: from Public Papers of U.S. Presidents, Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963-1964 (Washington: G.P.O., 1965), 1, pp. 375-380.

Images from the War on Poverty and speech on Food Stamp Act

Most of these are from the LBJ library….

Johnson personally went to Appalachia; here he visits the Fletcher family in Inez Kentucky. The Fletcher family still lives in this home.

Mrs. Johnson washes her hands before eating lunch with students at an elementary school. Note the lack of plumbing or running water.

Sadly, Appalachia is still mired in poverty. Visit this website to learn more:

Another key component to fighting poverty was education, so Johnson initiated Project Head Start to provided federally funded preschool education to increase readiness for school among low-income children.

I think those two little boys sharing a chair are interfering with someone’s enjoyment of story time…

Adequate nutrition was a key component for helping families out of poverty. Here Johnson signs the bill initiating the Food Stamps program

Johnson signs the Food Stamp Bill

Here’s what he said on August 31, 1964 in an address to Congress:

Members of the Congress, ladies and gentlemen:

I am proud to sign the Food Stamp Act of 1964 because it is a realistic and responsible step toward the fuller and wiser use of our agricultural abundance.

I believe the Food Stamp Act weds the best of the humanitarian instincts of the American people with the best of the free enterprise system. Instead of establishing a duplicate public system to distribute food surplus to the needy, this act permits us to use our highly efficient commercial food distribution system.

It is one of many sensible and needed steps we have taken to apply the power of America’s new abundance to the task of building a better life for every American.

In 1961 President Kennedy’s first Executive order doubled the quantity and variety of foods to be distributed to the needy. Today nearly 6 million people enjoy a better share of our food abundance through this program and up to 15 different food items are now available.

Likewise, this year we anticipate that 17 million children–3.2 million more than in 1960–will enjoy hot lunches in their schools, many of them for the first time. This is because of the sustained effort made to help our schools provide student lunches.

For 3 years we have conducted pilot operations for the food stamp program in both urban and rural areas. These tests have exceeded our best expectations. They have raised the diets of low-income families substantially while strengthening markets for the farmer and immeasurably improving the volume of retail food sales.

As a permanent program, the food stamp plan will be one of our most valuable weapons for the war on poverty.

It will enable low income families to increase their food expenditures, using their own dollars.

Our efforts to make better use of abundance are not limited to domestic programs. Hunger is a worldwide challenge. Through the Food for Peace program, we are sharing 7 percent more of our food with other peoples than in 1960. Our food abundance is being used constructively not only to combat hunger but also to help other nations to control inflation, generate funds for financing development projects, and to help provide lunches for some 40 million school children throughout the developing world.

The support given the food stamp plan illustrates the willingness of thoughtful Americans to find better uses for our food abundance. I wish to compliment those who have played a role in the passage of this legislation, including the distinguished chairmen of the House and Senate Committees on Agriculture, Senator Ellender and Representative Cooley.

Special tribute is also due Congresswoman Sullivan and Senator Aiken, both of whom have long supported a Federal food stamp program effectively.

Finally, I wish to convey my personal note of thanks to all agencies of State and local governments and to those bankers, food retailers, and wholesalers who have cooperated with the United States Department of Agriculture in this program during its 3-year pilot trial, and, finally, to the majority of the Members of the House and Senate who made it possible for this bill to be on my desk tonight.

Bull Conner and Civil Rights: A Case Study in White Resistance to Civil Rights


It’s amazing the impact one man can have… This video is particularly well done and a good review.

Important decisions of the Warren Court, 1953-1969

An overview of some of the decisions of the Warren Court can be found here:

Obviously, the list is famous: Brown v. Board of Ed., Escobedo v. Illinois, Gideon v. Wainwright, Mapp v. Ohio, Baker v. Carr, Griswold v. Connecticut, Engel v. Vitale…

If you need to look them up for yourself. Know them! Understand them!

Backwards review schedule for AP exam

The Home Stretch!!!!

Backwards Study program for April- May

Reviewing the material in backwards order will ensure that you review the oldest material right before the exam. It will also allow to reverse the usual cause/effect relationship to make new connections for remembering information.

Now if this freaks you out too much, you could do it in regular chronological order, but you run the risk of still then remembering the  newer topics far better than the older topics. It’s up to you….

Week of April 4-10

Modern US- WWII:

Chapters 34-40

Main theme: the US becomes a world power and continues to try to live up to its claim of exceptionalism in political, economic and social equality and opportunity in the face of challenges from communism abroad and protest from within. The US also realigns politically from concepts of government activism to growing support for limited government from Reagan onward.

Week of April 11- 17

Great Depression- Imperialism and Populism:

Chapters 26-33

Main theme: the US adjusts to industrialization and deals with the closing of the frontier and the absorption and assimilation of diverse ethnic, economic, and racial groups (New Immigrants, Native Americans, urban poor, etc). We begin to seek new markets for goods overseas and ports to expand our growing naval reach.

Week of April 18- 24

Gilded Age and Reconstruction to Sectionalism:

Chapters 18- 25

Main theme: the United States finally has to confront the challenge of slavery and then create an economic and political system that acknowledges the challenges of our remade country. We absorb immigrants from new areas of the world and deal with economic and political disparity.

Week of April 25- May 1

Manifest Destiny- Washington’s administration:

Chapters 10-17

Main theme: the New Republic sets an independent and (somewhat isolationist) course, developing its understanding of life as a constitutional republic and expanding its frontier as well as its understanding of democracy and distribution of power and wealth. We develop our ideas of what our constitution actually means and continue actions based upon the belief that our country is exceptional– favored by destiny to continually grow and flourish.

Week of May 1- May 6

Constitution- Colonization:

Chapters 1-9

Main theme: European colonizing powers encounter indigenous peoples and subdue them, and English settlements begin for religious and economic motives. As settlements spread, the growing  colonies are often objects of competition from various European powers. Finally, the “united states” are formed out of political and economic critiques of perceived unfair treatment by Britain, and we have to figure out how to guard our liberty while keeping ourselves secure from “tyranny” and outside interference by Britain and France in particular.