Archive for October, 2011

Preparation for chapter 17

Your text spent three chapters interrupting the flow of the narrative. Notice that it is now picking up the story where it left off in chapters 13 and 14 after our sidetrips into economics, culture, and the slave system. Make sure you review what was going on with the British, with Texas, and with Oregon in previous chapters to help you understand chapter 17. The pages you will want to review are: pp 265-267 and pp. 295-298. Make sure you note treaties and agreements from that time period.

Also, you might want to brush up on what exactly the Whig party held as its core beliefs. Pages 290-292 and 298-301 will help explain some of the politics in chapter 17. For some reason, the book suddenly left off its discussion of the Whigs and William Henry Harrison at the end of chapter 13 and now picks it up again at pages 396-97.

17:3 MC practice


1. Which overland trail brought settlers to the Willamette Valley?
A. Mormon Trail
B. Oregon Trail
C. Santa Fe Trail
D. California Trail
E. Chilkoot Trail 402

2. Which of the following statements best describes the main reason Southerners supported the annexation of Texas?
A. They wanted a safer route across the country.
B. They wanted more territory where slavery was already established.
C. They wanted better access to trade with Mexico.
D. They wanted new seaports to help trade with Asia.
E. They felt annexation would aid in Indian relocation. d

3. What innovation became a Romantic metaphor for American expansion?
A. Telephone
B. Mechanical reaper
C. Steel plow
D. Railroad engine
E. Direct current reading

4. Who was the president who presided over the annexation of Texas?
A. William H. Harrison
B. John Tyler
C. James Polk
D. William McKinley
E. James Garfield 400

5. The group that was instrumental in saving the soil of Oregon for the US was
A. the Lewis and Clark expedition.
B. conservationists.
C. fur trappers.
D. fishermen.
E. missionaries to the Indians. 402

6. Place these in order: the annexation of (T) Texas, (O) Oregon, and (C) California.
A. T, O, C
B. C, T, O
C. C, O, T
D. O, C, T
E. T, C, O 400-410

7. In the presidential election of 1844, the Whig candidate was
A. Henry Clay
B. William H. Harrison
C. James K. Polk
D. Daniel Webster
E. Zachary Taylor 404

8. One goal of Mexico in its 1846-1848 war with the United States was to
A. demonstrate the strength of Latino culture.
B. free black slaves.
C. regain control of Texas.
D. capture slaves and take them back to Mexico.
E. force America to pay claims owed to Mexican citizens. 408

9. Which of these was not a reason cited in one of your readings that drove westward expansion in the 1840s?
A. Possession of California and Oregon would enable trade with Asia.
B. Land on the frontier was cheap if not free.
C. Mexico offered free land to Catholics.
D. Economic depressions in the 19th century drove people toward the frontier in search of a better living.
E. The population was rapidly growing due to immigration and natural reproduction. readings

10. Some people in Britain hoped for a British alliance with Texas because
A. the alliance would help support the Monroe Doctrine.
B. the area would provide an excellent base from which to attack the United States.
C. Mexican efforts to attack the US would be stopped.
D. Texas could become a place to settle undesirable British emigrants, such as prisoners.
E. the alliance would give abolitionists the opportunity to free slaves in Texas. d, 400

Chapter 17 Outline

Outline format Chapter 17

I. How does the election of William Henry Harrison frustrate the hopes of the Whigs?
A. What was Clay’s scheme?
B. Tippecanoe talks himself to death
C. Tyler- is he really a Whig?
D. Bank Bungling and Tariff Trouble

II. What is Manifest Destiny, and how does it differ from the concept of imperialism?
A. What is Manifest Destiny?
John L. O’Sullivan
B. The Election of 1844
Summarize Issues, Slogans, Liberty party trips up Clay
C. “Young Hickory” Polk, the “Dark Horse”
Goals on the various concerns of the day
D. Mexico, California, Texas

III. How many times can we almost get into a war before we succeed?
A. The “Third War With England”
Causes, insurrection in Canada, Caroline incident
B. The “Aroostook,” or “Lumberjack,” War
Causes, Lord Ashburton saves the day?
C. Texas pleads for acceptance
Why do we say no? What eventually tips the scales?
D. The Oregon Question
Joint Occupancy to 54-40 or Fight!
E. What does England have to do with all these problems?

IV. Why is the South so excited about War With Mexico?
A. “American Blood on American Soil”- fact or fiction?
B. Abe Lincoln and the “Spot” Resolutions
C. Santa Anna plays us for chumps
D. The warm-up: Stephen’s (Kearney) and John’s (Fremont) excellent adventures
E. Taylor and Scott
F. Tristin’ the War Away
G. Guadelupe Hidalgo: What do we get?
H. What were the negative consequences?
How many Civil War generals get battle experience in Mexico?

Review MC practice 17:1*

This is review material to prepare you for events discussed in chapter 17.

Review Questions pre- Chapter 17
1. William Henry Harrison, the Whig party’s candidate in 1840, was
A. a true common man.
B. a very effective chief executive.
C. made to look like a poor western farmer.
D. born in a log cabin.
E. the first military officer to become president. 298

2. Most of the early American settlers in Texas came from
A. New England.
B. the Ohio Territory.
C. the Old Northwest.
D. the Middle Atlantic states.
E. the South and Southwest. 298

3. One reason for the Anglo-American rebellion against Mexican rule was
A. the Mexicans opposed slavery.
B. the Mexican government refused to allow the “Old Three Hundred” to purchase land.
C. Anglo-Texans wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian.
D. Anglo-Texans objected to the Mexican government’s execution of Stephen Austin.
E. Mexicans tried to establish slavery among the Texans. 297

4. Texans won their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies at the Battle of
A. San Jacinto.
B. Goliad.
C. the Alamo.
D. Santa Anna.
E. the Rio Grande. 295

5. Texas gained its independence in 1836 with
A. help from Britain.
B. no outside assistance.
C. the blessing of the Spanish government.
D. help from the French.
E. help from Americans. 295

6. Spain ceded its (insubstantial) claims to the Oregon Country in
A. the Adams-Onis (Florida Purchase) Treaty of 1819.
B. the Convocation of 1938.
C. the Vallee- Mendoza Treaty of 1822.
D. the Hay- Pauncefote Agreement.
E. the Mesabi- Webster Treaty of 1842. d, 266-7, 401

7. The US and England agreed to do what in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 (Choose ALL that apply)?
A. Finalize the boundary between Maine and Canada.
B. Set the northern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase at the 49th parallel.
C. Jointly occupy the Oregon Country.
D. Repatriate the Acadians to Canada.
E. Share valuable fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland. d, 265-6; 402

8. The doctrine of noncolonization in the Monroe Doctrine was
A. incapable of being enforced by the United States at the time the doctrine was created.
B. greeted with enthusiasm and gratitude by Latin Americans who believed the Americans could be more cooperative than the Spanish and the British.
C. universally acclaimed in Great Britain as an act of statesmanship.
D. mostly a symbolic gesture of goodwill to the Latin American republics.
E. opposed by both Whigs and Democratic-Republicans. 267, d

9. Which of the following is a country that claimed some rights to the Oregon Country in the 19th century, besides the US, Britain and Spain?
A. Denmark
B. Russia
C. Japan
D. Mexico
E. France 401-2

10. Britain’s claims to the Oregon country rested predominantly upon
A. the explorations sponsored under Prince Henry Longshanks.
B. Indian treaties with the British from the 1650s.
C. the defeat of the French (and their Canadian interests) during the French and Indian War.
D. the trade relationships between the Indians there and the Hudson’s Bay Company
E. the voyages and explorations of John Cabot. 401

Test review chapters 14-16

1. By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” located in the
A. border states of Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland.
B. mountain regions of Tennessee, West Virginia, and Kentucky.
C. old South states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.
D. new Southwest states of Texas, Arkansas, and Indian Territory.
E. Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

2. Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in 19th century America because
A. the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles.
B. men were regarded as morally superior beings.
C. it was the duty of men to teach the young to be good, productive citizens.
D. frontier life necessitated these distinctions.
E. women believed this emphasis brought them greater respect.

3. By 1860, the value of slaves in the South was
A. two billion dollars.
B. five billion dollars.
C. one billion dollars.
D. 200 million dollars.
E. 500 million dollars.

4. The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to
A. the supporters of Andrew Jackson.
B. people opposed to the growing power of evangelical Protestants.
C. those who wished to keep the government from meddling in social and economic life.
D. American suspicions of secret societies.
E. supporters of the American System.

5. During the first hours of Nat Turner’s Rebellion, how were the first victims killed?
A. they were killed with hatchets and axes
B.  they were suffocated
C. they were lined up and shot
D. they were whipped to death
E. their houses were set on fire

6. Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the 2nd Great Awakening because
A. they were looking to obtain as much power as possible at the expense of men.
B. they refused to accept the idea that there was a special female role in society.
C. religious social reform legitimized their activity outside the home.
D. many of the leading preachers and evangelists were women.
E. they saw churches as the first institutions that needed to be reformed.

7. In general, ____ tended to bind the West and South together, while _____ and _____ connected West to East.
A. canals, steamboats, turnpikes
B. railroads, canals, steamboats
C. steamboats, canals, railroads
D. turnpikes, steamboats, canals
E. turnpikes, railroads, steamboats

8. Nauvoo, Illinois
A. was the site of a new factory dedicated to creating interchangeable parts.
B. was the home of Lane Theological Seminary.
C. was the site of a great anti-slavery riot in which a printer and
minister was killed.
D. was the site of the first women’s college in the US.
E. was where Brigham Young was elected to replace Joseph Smith

9. Slaves fought the system of slavery in all of the following ways EXCEPT
A. slowing down the work pace.
B. sabotaging expensive equipment.
C. refusing to get an education.
D. running away if possible.
E. stealing goods their labor had produced.

10. The basis for modern mass production was the
A. cotton gin.
B. use of interchangeable parts.
C. creation of the mechanized assembly line.
D. principle of limited liability.
E. musket.

11. Most white southerners were
A. industrialists.
B. subsistence farmers.
C. plantation owners.
D. small farmers with a few slaves.
E. mountain whites.

12. All of these were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy EXCEPT
A. how tightly should patents protect inventions?
B. who should own the new transportation network?
C. can a democratic government still support slavery?
D. who should own these new technologies?
E. should the government regulate monopolies?

13. This semi- secret Irish organization helped Irish immigrants in America.
A. The Know-Nothings
B. The Molly Maguires
C. the Veiled Prophets
D. The Ancient Order of Hibernians
E. Sinn Fein

14. Which group would be least likely to support prohibition laws?
A. women
B. Protestant ministers
C. Temperance groups
D. Mormons
E. Roman Catholics

15. Transcendentalism was inspired by what simultaneous overseas movement?
A. Realism
B. the Enlightenment
C. the Renaissance
D. Romanticism
E. Abstract Expressionism

16. Which of these was NOT one of the “canal consequences?”
A. Many New England farmers had to give up farming and find other livelihoods, such as factory work.
B. Farmland in the Great Lakes area became much more profitable to farm.
C. Syracuse and Rochester in western New York experienced rapid growth.
D. The construction of railroads in New York and the Old Northwest was abandoned since canals were cheaper.
E. Chicago, Detroit and other cities of the Old Northwest became significant economic centers.

Link to Shaker furniture examples

John Quincy Adams and Slavery: from the Gag resolution to the Amistad

John Quincy Adams, while president, did not publicly advocate abolitionism. However, after his term in office, he was elected to the House of Representatives, where he became a well-known opponent of the Gag Rule (see pp. 391 in your text).

Click on the link to read a historical essay in .pdf format regarding Adams’ stances regarding slavery:

But perhaps one of the most well-known incidents with Adams was his involvement in the Amistad case. The Amistad was a slave ship bound for Cuba when the captured Africans aboard seized control of the ship. Eventually the ship was stopped by the US Coast Guard, and a court case began to determine, among other things, where the Africans were to go (the options included back to Africa, to prison or execution for mutiny, or back to the Spanish to be sold into slavery). Adams was one of the attorneys who defended the Africans during the trial. It is a fascinating story that you need to understand. Here is an article  about John Quincy Adams and the Amistad case, from the American Almanac, if you have not seen the movie: