Archive for November, 2011

Good Links on Reconstruction and Study Guide to Understanding Reconstruction Politically

Overview from Ohio History Central

High Beam Encyclopedia

What happened in Arkanas during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Louisiana during Reconstruction

Questions for understanding:
1. Why were there competing plans for Reconstruction?
2. Why did Congress seek to assert more authority in the closing months of the Civil War?
3. Louisiana and Arkansas were captured relatively early in the Civil War. What happened in these states when they initially attempted to rejoin the Union fully?

Try to find the answers to these questions before you read the documents relating to the debate over the Wade Davis Bill, which is really a power struggle over which branch of government should reign supreme.

Video: Sherman’s March to the Sea

From PBS.

Link to “The Man Without a Country” is a great repository of online texts, and has the short story, “The Man Without A Country” here:

Who was the main character inspired by? And look, Aaron Burr gets a shout-out, too!

20:3 MC practice

1. The Garibaldi Guard
A. was a regiment of Southerners who fought on the side of the North.
B. was the name for Southerners who remained in the South guarding plantations and preventing slave rebellions.
C. was the special quasi-military organization that provided protection for President Lincoln before the creation of the Secret Service.
D. was a regiment of immigrants from Italy, Hungary, Germany and France who fought in the Union army.
E. was a part of the Union army sent to Mexico to topple Emperor Maximilian from power.

2. One of Jefferson Davis’ key failings as president of the Confederacy was
A. his deferential attitude toward the Confederate Congress.
B. his imperious manner and lack of political skills.
C. his lack of experience in government.
D. his belief that the Confederate presidency should be a part-time job.
E. his repeated impeachment for embezzlement and dereliction of duty.

3. Lincoln was able to take early actions of questionable constitutionality because
A. he claimed that the Constitution was not valid in wartime.
B. he successfully pressured Congress against criticizing him for fear of being called Copperheads, cowards. or worse.
C.he had the Supreme Court firmly on his side to back him in all cases.
D. he threatened to impeach officials who contradicted his seizure of power.
E. Congress was not in session when the war officially began.

4. “Shoddy millionaires”
A. made their fortunes selling worthless goods to the government during the war.
B. engaged in treason by selling goods to both the Union and the Confederacy.
C. were oil drillers who rushed to Pennsylvania in 1859.
D. charged astronomical interest rates on government contracts.
E. received government subsidies to buy homesteads in the West and promptly resell them at huge profit.

5. Women contributed to the war effort through all of the following EXCEPT
A. organizing fundraisers for war orphans, widows, and wounded soldiers.
B. helping to establish new guidelines for cleanliness of medical care in field hospitals.
C. working as nurses on the battlefield.
D. serving as spies and fighting disguised as male soldiers.
E. smuggling food from Europe in their luggage and in their clothing by exploiting standards of modesty of the time.

6. The North’s greatest strength during the Civil War was its
A. ethnic unity.
B. miltary leadership.
C. economy.
D. high morale.
E. slave population.

7. Possessing ____ percent of the national wealth in 1860, the South claimed only _________ percent in 1870.
A. 45, 25
B. 20, 45
C. 32, 5
D. 30, 12
E. 25, 5

8. All of the following states joined the Confederacy after the firing on Ft. Sumter EXCEPT
A. Alabama.
B. North Carolina.
C. Virginia.
D. Tennessee.
E. Arkansas.

9. Which of the following was NOT a Border States that remained loyal to the Union?
A. Kentucky.
B. Tennessee.
C. Maryland.
D. Missouri.
E. Delaware.

10. King Cotton failed the South as a tool of wartime diplomacy for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A. the cotton crop was devastated by the boll weevil.
B. Britain held a surplus of cotton when the war began.
C. textile workers in Britain favored the North.
D. the North sold captured cotton to Britain.
E. Britain developed alternative sources of cotton in Egypt and India.

20:2 MC practice

1. Lincoln’s declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery
A. revealed the influence of the Border states on his policies.
B. contradicted the campaign promises of the Republican party.
C. caused some of the seceded states to rejoin the Union.
D. came as a disappointment to most Northerners and demoralized the Union.
E. cost him support in the “Butternut region” of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.

2. To fill the Army’s demand for troops, the North relied mainly on
A. the draft.
B. bounty brokers.
C. volunteers.
D.substitute brokers.
E. foreign mercenaries.

3. As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy
A. emerged more prosperous than ever before.
B. saw industrial profits improve but agricultural profits fall.
C. became dependent upon international trade.
D. greatly helped the day laborer.
E. became so prosperous that unscrupulous business practices were dramatically reduced.

4. How many Border slave states remained within the Union as of 1862?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

5. Lincoln argued that his assertion of executive power and suspension of certain civil rights was justified because
A. he was only suspending civil liberties in areas that had committed treason against the Union.
B. the South had committed an even greater breach of the Constitution.
C. as president during wartime he had unlimited presidential power.
D. he had indicated he would take such steps during his campaign for the presidency.
E. it was necessary to set aside certain Constitutional provisions to preserve the Union.

6. Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter when it was learned that
A. Lincoln had ordered supplies sent to the fort.
B. Lincoln had called for 75,000 volunteers to form a Union army.
C. the fort’s commander was planning to evacuate his troops secretly from the fort.
D. Lincoln had ordered the fort reinforced with federal troops.
E. Southern support for secession was weakening.

7. Which of the following was a Union advantage during the Civil War?
A. The Union could fight a defensive war.
B. The Union had more experienced generals.
C. The Union had a better-funded treasury.
D. Britain offered the Union its military support.
E. The Union had greater support from its citizens.

8. Lincoln’s primary objective in suppressing the writ of habeas corpus was to
A. suppress Southern sympathizers in Border States.
B. better control the newspapers of the North.
C. bolster the size of the army with a draft.
D. be allowed to officially end slavery in the capital.
E. increase taxes to better fund the war effort.

9. The main reason why Lincoln stated he HAD to have Kentucky was
A. because it was his home state.
B. Ft. Knox, the depository of federal gold, was there, and those deposits could help pay for the war.
C. its northern border was made up of a large part of the strategic Ohio River.
D. Samuel Colt’s weapons factories were located there.
E. Kentucky contained a rich deposit of lead for bullets.

10. Technically in Midwestern territory, this region was know to be filled with population that was pro-Southern settlers.
A. the “mountain white” region of Virginia.
B. the Chesapeake Bay of Maryland.
C. the Oregon country.
D. the “Butternut” region of Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana.
E. the Green River area of Vermont.

The Story of the Prisoners of Berga

In honor of Veterans’ Day…

At the Battle of the Bulge, some American POWs captured by the Nazi forces were used as slave laborers at a camp that was part of the Buchenwald complex because they were (or were assumed to be) Jews. A little known story that should never be forgotten.

From PBS, Berga: Soldiers of Another War.

20:1 MC Practice

1. In order to reach his inauguration, Abraham Lincoln
A. had to agree to an amendment guaranteeing slavery in the territories.
B. had to pass the Crittenden Compromise.
C. had to sneak into Washington in partial disguise.
D. had to hold his inauguration in Illinois.
E. traveled by water along the Mississippi, the Gulf, and the Atlantic Ocean.

2. The first shots of the Civil War were fired at
A. Bull Run, Maryland.
B. Fort Sumter, South Carolina.
C. the First Battle of Manassas.
D. Fort McHenry, Maryland.
E. Antietam, Maryland.

3. After Lincoln called for 75,000 militiamen on April 15, 1861
A. the Confederacy grew to eleven states.
B. West Virginia seceded from Virginia to briefly become an independent country.
C. ten times that number volunteered for the Confederate army.
D. the first shots in the war were fired.
E. a slave rebellion arose in Louisiana.

4. Lincoln steadfastly refused to characterize the Civil War as a fight to end slavery because
A. he did not believe in the equality of the races.
B. he believed that if he did so, the breakaway of the Confederate states would be halted.
C. he desperately needed to keep the Border States within the Union.
D. Southern members of Congress would have cut off all funding for the war.
E. his cabinet would have resigned had he done so.

5. The last state to secede from the Union was
A. Virginia
B. Texas
C. North Carolina
D. Maryland
E. Tennesssee

6. Lincoln said that he hoped to have God on his side, but he had to have
A. his wife.
B. Virginia.
C. Maryland.
D. Robert E. Lee.
E. Kentucky.

7. The North had all of the following advantages at the start of the Civil War EXCEPT:
A. a better navy.
B. more industrial might and manufacturing capacity.
C. more miles of railways.
D. better military leadership.
E. a larger population from which to draw for its army.

8. The city in which the first shots of the Civil War were fired was
A. Washington, DC.
B. Atlanta, Georgia.
C. Baltimore, Maryland.
D. Charleston, South Carolina.
E. New Orleans, Louisiana.

9. Secretary of State William Seward
A. disagreed with Lincoln’s plan to resupply Fort Sumter.
B. suggested declaring war against Spain, Great Britain, or France to get the South to abandon secession.
C. felt that Lincoln was too rash and rushed too hastily into war.
D. had sons of his own that fought on the Confederate side.
E. demanded that Lincoln approve the building of an all-steel navy.

10. In order to retain the Border States, Lincoln
A. deployed federal troops and declared martial law.
B. offered to build federal facilities in these states if they remained in the Union.
C.attempted persuasive speeches to maintain their loyalty.
D.threatened to send black troops in to occupy secessionist areas.
E. all of the above.