Archive for January, 2012

The Ludlow Massacre

In 1913, coal miners in Ludlow, Colorado, employed by Colorado Fuel and Iron Co owned by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (the son of the founder of Standard Oil), went on strike to protest their wages, which they felt were too low. Making matters worse was that Ludlow was a company town, and employees lived in company-owned houses. They were paid in company scrip rather than US currency, thus tying them to the company store and its prices. The Colorado state militia opened fire with machine guns on the striking miners’ camp, and eventually buildings were put to the torch. The massacre ultimately killed three women and eleven children. Read a first-hand account here ( The PBS companion site on the incident is here.

The events of the Ludlow Massacre demonstrate the ruthlessness that was employed by employers in their attempts to crush strikes, and the often brutal cooperation of government authorities in supporting the interests of business over those of the working people.

The massacre caused protests outside Rockefeller’s New York mansion. Woody Guthrie was later inspired to write a song about the incident:

Ludlow Massacre

It was early springtime when the strike was on,
They drove us miners out of doors,
Out from the houses that the Company owned,
We moved into tents up at old Ludlow.

I was worried bad about my children,
Soldiers guarding the railroad bridge,
Every once in a while a bullet would fly,
Kick up gravel under my feet.

We were so afraid you would kill our children,
We dug us a cave that was seven foot deep,
Carried our young ones and pregnant women
Down inside the cave to sleep.

That very night your soldiers waited,
Until all us miners were asleep,
You snuck around our little tent town,
Soaked our tents with your kerosene.

You struck a match and in the blaze that started,
You pulled the triggers of your gatling guns,
I made a run for the children but the fire wall stopped me.
Thirteen children died from your guns.

I carried my blanket to a wire fence corner,
Watched the fire till the blaze died down,
I helped some people drag their belongings,
While your bullets killed us all around.

I never will forget the look on the faces
Of the men and women that awful day,
When we stood around to preach their funerals,
And lay the corpses of the dead away.

We told the Colorado Governor to call the President,
Tell him to call off his National Guard,
But the National Guard belonged to the Governor,
So he didn’t try so very hard.

Our women from Trinidad they hauled some potatoes,
Up to Walsenburg in a little cart,
They sold their potatoes and brought some guns back,
And they put a gun in every hand.

The state soldiers jumped us in a wire fence corners,
They did not know we had these guns,
And the Red-neck Miners mowed down these troopers,
You should have seen those poor boys run.

We took some cement and walled that cave up,
Where you killed these thirteen children inside,
I said, “God bless the Mine Workers’ Union,”
And then I hung my head and cried.

EWWWW. Some people will buy anything.

I can’t MAKE this stuff up. Someone else does it for me:

Progressive reforms at the ballot box

Here are some useful links for tomorrow: (Don’t be insulted!!!)

Example for Progressives and the income tax

This would be the full answer for a writing prompt I have used in the past on the Progressives and the 16th Amendment. You will be doing a writing prompt in class tomorrow which will be due before you leave at the end of the period.

Why was the 16th Amendment the first Progressive reform placed within the Constitution? What were they hoping to accomplish, and why?

The income tax and tariff were complementary issues: The Underwood Tariff Act not only reduced tariffs to their lowest levels in a half-century, but also included an increase in the income tax to offset the ensuing revenue loss. The shift to income tax was seen as an issue of economic fairness. Replacing the tariff system, which Progressives viewed as both an unpredictable source of government revenue as well as an inequitable government give-away to wealthy manufacturers, was a top priority for the Progressives. A graduated income tax,which had been first proposed by the Populists, would have less of an impact on the working-class and farmers who paid a higher percentage of their income on tariff-impacted goods than the wealthy did. An income tax would also provide a reliable source of government income to help pay for the new services the federal government would provide to the people under a Progressive agenda.

Summary of the history of the income tax

Not too bad, and very brief!;_ylt=ArQYhxYAlIz1ITvGHe5qh0NH2ocA;_ylu=X3oDMTRpaWhldmFhBGFzc2V0Ay9zL2FjLzc3NjIzODRfaGlzdG9yeV9iZWhpbmRfdGhlXzE2dGhfYW1lbmRtZW50X2FuZF91bml0ZWRfc3RhdGVzX2luY29tZV90YXhlcwRjY29kZQNyYW5kb20EY3BvcwMyBHBvcwMyBHNlYwN5bl90b3Bfc3RvcmllcwRzbGsDaGlzdG9yeWJlaGlu

How the Other Half Lives

Here is a link to a digital copy of the book:

Here is background on the book:

Links for the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

This one has better images and a timeline of events:

Reminders- Updated

1. Chapter 28 due Monday, January 23. Go over questions that day. Terms check chapter 28 Tuesday due to assembly schedule.
2. Chapter 29 due Friday, January 27. Questions will be finished in class that day, and you will have a chart to complete.
3. Test over chapters 27-29 on Wednesday, Feb, 1.
4. Make sure you keep checking the blog.


Test over chapters 25-26 Tuesday. There are all kinds of study aids posted already here on the front page and in the archives if you are confused. Your questions that you did for chapter 26 should also help you. Be ready to start your test as soon as possible Tuesday.

Chapter 27 due Wednesday- Questions are already posted below.

Happy Martin Luther King Day!

Questions Chapter 27- Imperialism

Chapter 27 questions
Due Wednesday, January 18

1.What was the relationship between American industrialization and the sudden attention to foreign relations and imperialism in the post-Civil War era? (Think back to mercantilism for help.)
2. What 2 policy developments did Alfred Thayer Mahan help encourage?
3. How was the Big Sister policy paternalistic?
4. What three events were used as examples of America’s new belligerence?
5. Why did Britain finally decide to play nice with the US?
6. Why did the McKinley Tariff create a crisis among white plantation owners in Hawai’i? Why was the Hawai’ian situation not resolved for another 5 years?
7. What did Hawai’i and Cuba have in common?
8. What does “you furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war” mean?
9. What actually happened to the Maine? What was implied at the time, and why would this matter?
10. In what way was the Teller amendment like the Wilmot Proviso?
11. Where were the first shots fired in the Spanish-American War? How is that different from where the issue was that caused the declaration of war? What was the shape of the Spanish navy?
12. Why did the Spanish-American War make Hawai’i more important, strategically? What then happened?
13. What is the connection between Leonard Wood and Missouri (you may need to google this)? Why were the Rough Riders so famous?
14. What were the leading causes of American casualties during the war?
15. What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898? What specific religious concerns influence the negotiations? Why was the treaty controversial at home?
16. What were the concerns of the Anti-Imperialist League and its allies? What was the “White Man’s Burden?” How did the Insular Cases exemplify the confusion over our new overseas possessions?
17. How did the Platt Amendment attempted to lessen the impact of the Teller Amendment?
18. Why was the Spanish-American War called a “splendid little war?”
19. What were the causes and effects of the Philippine Insurrection?
20. What does “benevolent assimilation” mean?
21. Why did the United States find itself involved in China, and what were the consequences of that involvement? How did the Chinese feel about Western interference?
22. What specific criticisms did William Jennings Bryan make during the presidential campaign of 1900?
23. How (and when) did the plot to remove Theodore Roosevelt from influence backfire?
24. Explain the differences among the three treaties that dealt with the construction of an isthmian canal. Why were the French involved, but the British less so?
25. What was the total cost of building the Panama Canal, in money, lives, and time?
26. What was “preventive intervention,” and what was it better known as? Where did this apply?
27. How did Teddy Roosevelt become the first US president to be awarded a Nobel Peace Prize?
28. Why did anti-Asian sentiment break out in California again by 1906? What two agreements were concluded with Japan, specifically?