Archive for May, 2012

AP Summer assignment- Extra Credit but NECESSARY

Welcome to Advanced Placement United States History! In order to help us get the most out of this class and to provide a cushion for your grade as you transition from covering ONE semester of college level material (as you covered if you took AP European history or regular World History), to covering TWO semesters worth of material, I have created this summer assignment for some sizeable EXTRA CREDIT.

I’ll say it again, this is EXTRA CREDIT, but NECESSARY, and will raise your semester 1 grade approximately 3 percentage points. This is a LOT of extra credit. You seriously want to do it.

The purposes are many: First, it will make you familiar with the textbook. Second, it will allow you to raise your grade. Third, it will make you ready for the first test of the year over chapters 1-4 in the second week of school. Fourth, we will be glad to have covered this material quickly after our sixth snow day hits next year. This assignment helps us to avoid that problem. Fifth, did I mention it will raise your grade????? I thought so.

In 2011, the Document Based Essay on the AP US history exam was about Richard Nixon, whose presidency was from 1968-1974. MANY AP teachers and students were upset because they did not manage to cover this material in class. We here at PHS did not have that concern, even with the snow days and the tornado, thanks to this assignment and diligent work on everyone’s part.

Now, I am not just tossing you out there to learn this material on your own. First of all, I have a classroom blog, and it is obvious that you were wise and bookmarked it since you are reading this here. Good job! Visit it this site OFTEN! You can use the comments section to study together or ask questions. This blog has categories for each chapter as well as for subtopics and links to review websites. It is designed to help your comprehension and expand my ability to help you on your way to a solid classroom experience and a 5 on the AP exam.

If you look to the right, you will see a box below the quote of the week that lists the last five posts. Below that you will see another box entitled “categories.” You want to use the categories “Beginning of Year” and for Chapters 1-4 right now. I will post things here over the summer to help you get this assignment done.

So this extra credit assignment is due on the third day of school next fall. It needs to be handwritten neatly and legibly, and make sure you do your own work. You are welcome to work together on this assignment, but you cannot copy from your friends. This assignment will not help you if you yourself do not do it.

So please make sure you checked out a book from me before you leave for the summer.

I look forward to seeing you next year!

Leslie Scoopmire, AP US history teacher



Define the terms, explain the significance of the terms, and answer the questions FULLY. This is extra credit, but is necessary.

Here is an example of how to define a term:

Iroquois Confederacy- AKA the Six Nations, a league of related Native tribes (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca originally, with the Tuscarora moving into the area from the Carolinas and joining the Confederacy in the 1700s) united by Algonquian language and longhouse religion. They suffered under the competition between their English trading partners and the French and their Indian allies, although officially they attempted to maintain neutrality. At their greatest point they occupied land from Kentucky to Michigan but were most concentrated in upper New York state.

Chapter Study Guides—Semester 1—Scoopmire

Chapter 1 New World Beginnings, 33,000 BC- AD 1769

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Mississippian culture____Anasazi____ Cahokia

Iroquois____L’Anse aux Meadows____Vinland

Ferdinand/Isabella____Christopher Columbus____“sugar revolution”

Taino ____ Treaty of Tordesillas____Tenochtitlan

encomienda____Giovanni Caboto____St. Augustine (FL)

Juan de Onate____Battle of Acoma____Pope’s Rebellion

conquistadores____mestizos____“three sister” agriculture

Juan Ponce de Leon____Moctezuma____Junipero Serra

Ferdinand Magellan____Hernan Cortes____mission Indians

Francisco Coronado____tidewater region____Franciscans

Hernando de Soto____Malinche____“Black Legend”

Vasco Nunez de Balboa____Quetzalcoatl____Hispaniola

Bartolome de Las Casas____maize____Robert La Salle

Mound Builders____Battle of Acoma____Alamo

Pueblo culture____Mound Builders____Norse


Be able to explain the following fully:

— What kind of environmental impact did Native Americans have?  Why do you think this impact was significantly different from that of the Europeans?

— What was the impetus for European exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries?

— Describe the impact of interaction between Europe and the Americas, including the global effects of the Columbian exchange of plants, and of the introduction of European illnesses into the Americas.

— Describe the system of encomienda.  What was the ethical rationale for this system? What were the practical effects of this system?

Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, 1500-1733

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Sir Walter Raleigh____Roanoke Island____Virginia

“surplus population”____charter____Powhatan

“starving time”____“Irish tactics”____1st Anglo-Powhatan War

2nd Anglo-Powhatan War____“three Ds”____Powhatan’s Confederacy

Piedmont____Algonquians____“seminary of sedition”

Barbados Slave Code____Restoration period____Deganawidah

Tuscaroras____Iroquois Confederacy____“soil butchery”

John Smith____John Rolfe____indentured servant

Lord Baltimore____Charles II ____Hiawatha

Lords Proprietors____Savannah Indians____Lord de la Warr

Tuscaroras____Yamasees____James Oglethorpe

Handsome Lake ____John Wesley____House of Burgesses

primogeniture____joint-stock company____Act of Toleration

Virginia Company ____Iroquois Confederacy____proprietorship

Be able to explain the following fully:

–Trace the establishment of the five southeastern English colonies of Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, and Georgia, outlining their similarities and differences.

— How did the Indians respond to English settlement? What factors prevented them from resisting effectively? What attempts were made by the Indians to overcome this?

— How did English land laws influence the English settlement of North America?

— Outline the beginning of the plantation system and its importation to America.  How did colonists deal with the need for labor before slavery became widespread?

— Go to on the internet. What is the Fall Line? How did it influence Native American and English settlement?

Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619-1700

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Anne Hutchinson____William Penn____Sir Edmund Andros

Roger Williams____John Winthrop____“the elect”

William Bradford____John Cotton____predestination

covenant____Separatists____Bible Commonwealth

Mayflower Compact____Puritans____Dominion of New England

Navigation Laws____freemen____antinomianism

Pilgrims____New England Confederation

Fundamental Orders____Quakers____King Philip’s War

“salutary neglect”____Middle Colonies____“bread colonies”

Eurocentrism____the Chesapeake____“Blue Laws”

“Protestant work ethic”____Metacom____“royal colony”

Be able to explain the following fully:

— Describe the three separate regions of English colonies.  How did each region differ from the others, and why?

— Describe the Puritan/Separatist drive to establish colonies.  How did religious beliefs inform their actions?

–Respond to the following: “Early America was a haven for religious dissidents.”

–Explain the relationship between the mother country and the English colonies, including an explanation of the era of “neglect” and its aftermath. Contrast the New England Confederation with the Dominion of New England.

— Describe the interaction between the English and the Native Americans. How were the Puritans and Quakers different in their relations with natives?  Compare English actions with those of the Spanish.

Chapter 4 American Life in the Seventeenth Century, 1607-1692

Identify the historical significance of the following:

William Berkeley____Nathaniel Bacon____headright system

middle passage____Bacon’s Rebellion____“freedom dues”

Royal African Company____Gullah____midwifery

Salem Witch Trials____Halfway Covenant____gentry

the Chesapeake____ “white slaves”____“freedom dues”

House of Burgesses____“Yankee ingenuity”

Be able to explain the following fully:

— Describe the abuses of the indentured servant system.  How did the conditions freedmen faced become potentially explosive?  How did the headright system exacerbate the frustrations of the freedmen? Why do you think “No slave uprising in American history matched the scale of Bacon’s Rebellion?”

— List the pros and cons of being a woman in the Chesapeake during the 17th century.  Why would so few women live to be forty years old?  What were the challenges faced by early American families? Explain the statement that “New England invented grandparents.”

— List the factors that made importing African slaves more appealing after 1680. Why did so many slaves have to be imported during the years before 1720?  What caused the decline of importation?  Describe how cultural interaction influenced both the colonists and the slaves.

— Why did the Puritans face a crisis of faith in the mid-17th century?  How did they attempt to deal with this? Evaluate the efficacy of this transition.

Final Exam schedule

For those of you taking the final exam, here is the schedule:

Monday, May 14: You will take part 1 of the written portion of the exam. This will include a DBQ and an FRQ.

Wednesday, May 16– 1st hour Final Exam 7:23-8:50
Multiple choice section and another FRQ.

Thursday, May 17– 3rd hour Final Exam 9:00-10:30
Multiple choice section and another FRQ.

Friday, May 18– 5th hour Final Exam 9:00-10:30
Multiple choice section and another FRQ.

Weird names in US history

Patroons—Descendants of the first Dutch settlers in the Hudson Valley in New Netherland, now known as New York state. Somewhat equivalent to the First Families of Virginia, they enjoyed wealth and influence in colonial politics and beyond.  Similar to the word “patron.”

Locofocos— radical wing of the Democratic Party, organized in New York City in 1835- 1840s. Made up primarily of workingmen and reformers, the Locofocos were opposed to state banks, monopolies, paper money, tariffs, and generally any financial policies that seemed to them antidemocratic and conducive to special privilege. They were named after a type of matches.

Fire-eaters— southerners who refused to acknowledge any criticism of slavery. They were a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation as early as 1850, when they held a secessionist convention in Nashville, Tennessee over the turmoil related to the addition of the Mexican Cession.

Know-Nothings—Member of the American party of 1854-1856, which was a nativist, anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic political movement. They received their name because supposedly, when questioned if they belonged to this movement, they responded, “I know nothing.” They fell apart over the issue of slavery after the election of 1856. This group was formed from the “Order of United Americans” and the “Order of the Star Spangled Banner.”

Barnburners—a faction of radical New York Democrats formed in the late 1830s who split from the Democratic party in 1848 over the issue of slavery. They then joined with the Liberty party and anti-slavery Whigs to form the Free Soil party after that point. They were against increasing the public debt and distrusted the power of large corporations. Their support of third party candidate James Birney in the election of 1848 helped deprive Henry Clay of enough votes in New York that James Polk was able to be elected president.

Mugwumps— In the election of 1884, the Mugwumps were reformist Republicans who voted for Democrat Grover Cleveland over James Blaine due to their belief that he was corrupt. Blaine was a leader of the less-radical Half-Breeds, who supported civil service reform of the patronage system under the Pendleton Act of 1883, which was not yet fully implemented. Although a small fragment of the overall Republican party, their voting patterns were just enough to change the vote in New York state, narrowly giving Cleveland the victory, as had happened with the Barnburners mentioned previously.

Half-Breeds—Gilded Age Republicans who were led by James Blaine of Maine. They were the moderate wing of the Republican party, and were opposed by the radical Mugwumps as well as the patronage-loving Stalwarts.

Stalwarts—A faction of the Republican party during the Gilded Age who were in favor of machine politics and the patronage system. They were led by Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York, so were sometimes called Conklingites.

Copperheads—also known as “Peace Democrats,” during the secession crisis after the party had broken up in 1860, they  were northern Democrats that opposed the Civil War and even believed the Republicans had provoked the secession crisis. They were most numerous in the Midwest, and were led by Clement Vallandigham of Ohio, who also led a secret antiwar society called the Sons of Liberty. Vallandigham was arrested for violating a military order against “declaring sympathy for the enemy,” and was tried by a military tribunal and was later exiled to the Confederacy. He instead traveled via Bermuda to Canada, where he ran for governor of Ohio in absentia. His platform was to secede Ohio from the Union if Lincoln did not reconcile with the Confederacy. He lost overwhelmingly. Vallindigham was the basis for the main character in Edward Everett Hale’s short story, “The Man Without a Country.”

Molly Maguires—a secret organization made up mostly of Irish-American coal miners in Pennsylvania from the end of the Civil War to the late 1870s. They were accused of kidnappings and other violent acts. The organization originated in Ireland and then made their way here with immigrants.

Yippies— The Yippies (Youth International Party), was a group founded in 1967 by Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin. Originally part of the SDS, the Yippies believed in many of the same leftist ideals. The Yippies came to represent the violent, more reckless side to the leftist movement.

Yuppies—Young Urban Professionals, the Yuppies ruled the 1980s in their loft apartments, their BMWs, their power suits, and their high disposable incomes.

DINKs—Another term for certain Yuppies in the 1980s, this stands for Dual Income, No Kids.

Doughfaces—those Northerners who supported the Southern position in the antebellum era were called doughfaces. Some doughfaces were also Copperheads.

Grangers— members of “The Grange,” otherwise known as The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, which was a fraternal organization for farmers founded in 1867. It still exists, although there are only about 300,000 members currently, down from a peak of about a million in the 1880s. They were responsible for a series of laws regulating railroads known as Granger Laws. See also, the muggle family of Hermione Granger.

Overview of Labor Unions in the US



The College Board’s APUSH topic outline

You can click on the hyperlinks to see more details…

Territorial Acquisitions for the United States

Treaties and Purchases that have made the US what it is today….


1. 1783-Peace of Paris– the treaty that ended the American Revolution established the newly independent US at being bounded on the north by Canada, on the South by Spanish Florida, on the east by the Atlantic, and on the west by the Mississippi River. These terms, especially about the boundary of Canada, were not very well defined, however. In fact, the US did not permanently settle its border with Canada until 1925!


2. 1803– Louisiana Purchase Treaty– the boundary of the US is moved from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, containing the western watershed of the Mississippi River including the Missouri, a major tributary.


3. 1818- Convention of 1818– treaty with Britain allowing joint occupation of the Oregon Country for ten years, established the 49th parallel as the northern boundary of that part of the US that had been gained through the Louisiana Purchase from the Lake of the Woods to the Rockies. We therefore gave up part of what is now southern Alberta province to the US. This treaty also including the gain of fishing rights off eastern Canada for the US.


4. 1819- Adams-Onis Treaty (Florida Purchase Treaty)- Spain gave Florida to the US in exchange for the US payment of $5 million in claims by citizens against the Spanish and giving up part of some claims to Texas along the Sabine River.


5. 1820- Maine gains statehood as part of the Missouri Compromise, but its border with Canada is disputed. Although the King of the Netherlands was called in to try to negotiate a settlement, that treaty was rejected by the US Senate. The border will not be settled until 1842 after the Aroostook War….


6. 1842- Webster-Ashburton Treaty – After the Aroostook or Lumberjack War, our secretary of state, Daniel Webster, opened negotiations with Alexander Baring, Baron Ashburton. The boundary between Maine and Canada all along the Great Lakes, to the Lake of the Woods was determined. Of the 12,000 square miles of disputed territory, the US got 7,000 and  Britain got 5,000.


7. 1845- Texas is annexed by a joint resolution in the lame duck period of president Tyler’s administration. President-elect Polk had already made it clear that he was in favor of annexation as a part of the doctrine of what would later be known as Manifest Destiny. Texas- boundaries at the time includes parts of New Mexico and Colorado as far as the southern boundary of the Oregon Country.


8. 1846- Oregon Treaty– The southern half of the Oregon Country is ceded to the US on June 15 as rthe US prepared for war with Mexico. The US does not insist on its claim of “54’40° or Fight,” but instead continues the 49th parallel, approximately as the boundary between the US and Canada to the Pacific, with Canada also receiving all of  Vancouver Island.


9. 1848- Treaty of Guadelupe-Hidalgo– Mexico cedes the Mexican Cession after they are defeated in the Mexican War. The US receives Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and the remainder of Colorado west of the Rockies. Texas’ current boundary will later be fixed as part of the Compromise of 1850.


10. 1853- Gadsden Purchase– the Southern boundaries of Arizona and New Mexico is purchased from Mexico (supposedly to allow a southern route for the proposed transcontinental railroad). The US paid $10,000,000 for approximately 30,000 square miles of cactus, sand, and lizards, just so that Southerners would stop standing in the way of passage of a transcontinental railroad bill. What wouldn’t we do to mollify the Southerners?


11. 1867- Alaska Purchase Treaty– Secretary of State Seward was accused of folly when he purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars for approximately 586,000 square miles of frozen tundra and rainforest—oh, and gold and oil. That worked out to about two cents an acre, by the way. Russia was willing to deal because they were afraid that their weakness after the Crimean War would enable the US to take it without compensation.


12. 1898- Hawai’i is annexed by the Newlands Resolution on June 6, after the US Senate refused to ratify a treaty negotiated between the US and the fraudulent “Republic of Hawaii.” This occurred while the US was at war (for ten weeks) with Spain.


13. 1925- Canada- US Boundary Treaty- we finally nail down where in the Lake of the Woods the boundary with Canada is, so we swap out a few acres.


So that’s how we got the boundaries of the United STATES.


But we have other territories which are not parts of states.


AND also… the US claimed uninhabited islands to mine bird and bat poop throughout the world based on the Guano Islands Act of 1856– like Johnston Atoll; Baker Island (which is south of the equator); Howland Island, where Amelia Earheart was headed when she disappeared; Jarvis Island; and Kingman Reef, all in the Pacific Ocean…


And we gained territory from the Spanish- American War…. (Guam remains from this, the Philippines have their independence)


And we split Samoa with Germany in the Tripartite Convention of 1899, from which we got American Samoa…


And we gained territory from World War II- Wake Island and Midway Island, sites of famous battles….


The end… so far….

American Authors Timeline

Can’t remember where I got this: Timeline for Great American Authors

2 page overview of Native American policy

From Dr. Angela A. Gonzales and Melanie A. Stansbury of Cornell University:indian_history timeline

Some content on this page was disabled on September 15, 2017 as a result of a DMCA takedown notice from Melanie Stansbury. You can learn more about the DMCA here:

FRQs by era through 2011

Here they are, listed as chronologically as possible going back to the 1980s….

FRQs to 2011


You’re welcome!

Generic DBQ rubric

This also works for FRQs– just take out the document part.