Due Monday, October 22.
Make sure you are answering thoroughly and doing your own work in your own words.
1. What were the specific causes of the rise of the market economy in the early 19th century?
2. What specific hardships did those living on the frontier (the West) face? What adjectives best describe frontier settlers in terms of their education and intellectual attitudes? Why does your text refer to the West as “the most typically American part of America?”
3. What is ecological imperialism? How and why did George Catlin oppose this?
4. Where did the “surplus people” come from?
5. Which country provided the largest source of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s, and what were the push factors that drove these people from the native country? Where did these people tend to settle in the US, and why? How many of them settled in the US between 1830 and 1860?
6. Why did native-born people tend to distrust this group (in question 5) in particular (explain religious reasons and secret societies)? What was the Order of the Star Spangled Banner? What fear did nativists have about immigrant impact on our religious and cultural heritage? What true impact did immigrants have upon the US economy?
7. How were German immigrants different from Irish immigrants in terms of their settlement patterns? How did the Irish begin to influence urban politics, especially in New York?
8. Where did the modern factory system begin? How did Britain attempt to protect its virtual monopoly in the textile industry? What role did Samuel Slater play?
9. Where did American business find the capital to develop and expand? Which of these three things necessary for business development—capital, raw materials, and labor—did the US have most abundantly?
10. What technological innovations were Americans creating during this time period? Make a chart with the creators, DATES, and inventions/innovations.
11. In what industry did the industrial revolution first center in the US, and why? Where was this manufacturing concentrated in the US? What group of people benefitted most from manufacturing enterprises?
12. What were the main markets for Southern cotton? Why did the South not develop more textile manufacturing at this time? How did Eli Whitney accidentally encourage the expansion of slavery?
13. What was the innovation most responsible for the growth of modern mass manufacturing?
14. What role did women and children play in early US manufacturing? Explain the “cult of domesticity” and explain the discord between belief in this ideal and the first part of this question. 15. How were American families affected by the increasing industrialization of America? How did the home come to be viewed as work moved away from it and to a separate location (such as a factory?)
16. How did unions develop in the business sector, and what was the relevance of the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt? What impact did the panic of 1837 have on unionization, and why? What finally enabled workers to have more influence over conditions under which they labored, from a legal standpoint?
17. Explain the development of transportation during this time period as a necessary function of economic development. Where and when were roads, canals, turnpikes, and railroads being built? Include dates and specifics. What impact did the transportation revolution have upon sectionalism?
18. What was the significance of the Cumberland Road, and where was it?
19. What impact did Robert Fulton have upon river transportation?
20. What does the phrase “canal consequences” mean? What impact did the development of roads and canals have upon the importance of the Mississippi?
21. What legal questions were raised by the growth of the market economy?
22. What was the impact of industrialization on Americans’ standard of living (also consider children in your answer)?