Archive for May, 2013

50th Anniversary of Jackson, Mississippi sit-in

Today marks the 50th anniversary of a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth’s lunch counter in Jackson, MS, which was the subject of a famous photograph. Notice that the protesters are both white and African American (otherwise it wouldn’t be as obvious an attempt to integrate):

Tougaloo College students and faculty attempt to integrate a lunch counter in Jackson, MS.

Tougaloo College students and faculty attempt to integrate a lunch counter in Jackson, MS.

Here is the article:


JACKSON, Miss. (AP) — Mississippi will inaugurate a marker Tuesday recalling a civil rights protest 50 years ago when a white mob attacked a racially mixed group seated at a whites-only lunch counter.

On May 28, 1963, the mob attacked some Tougaloo College students and faculty members who opposed segregation by sitting at the whites-only counter at a Woolworth’s five-and-dime store in Jackson. Some of the peaceful demonstrators were beaten. Others were doused with ketchup, mustard and sugar.

The marker is part of the Mississippi Freedom Trail, a series of signs honoring those who challenged segregation. The sit-in was similar to other protests around the South and occurred two weeks before Mississippi NAACP leader Medgar Evers was assassinated in Jackson.

The Woolworth’s, which was located on a downtown Jackson street, closed decades ago.

Here is a link to a first-person account of one of the protesters who took part in the sit-ins in a different town in Mississippi. I have included an excerpt, but please read the whole account here:

Mississippi Lunch Counter Sit-ins, 1963
From Anne Moody. Coming of Age in Mississippi.
“At exactly 11 a.m., Pearlena, Memphis, and I entered Woolworth’s from the rear entrance….before 11:15 we were occupying three seats at the previously segregated Woolworths lunch counter. In the beginning the waitresses seemed to ignore us, as if they really didn’t know what was going on. Our waitress walked past us a couple of times before she noticed we had stared to write our own orders down and realized we wanted service. She asked us what we wanted. We began to read to her from our order slips. She told us that we would be served at the back counter which was for Negroes…
‘”‘We would like to be served here,’ I said.
 “The waitress started to repeat what she had said, then stopped in the middle of the sentence.
“She turned the lights out behind the counter, and she and the other waitresses almost ran to the back of the store, deserting all their white customers. I guess they thought that violence would start immediately after the whites at the counter realized what was going on.
 “At noon, students from a nearby white high school started pouring in to Woolworth’s. When they first saw us they were sort of surprised. They didn’t know exactly how to react. A few started to heckle and the news men [by now this sit-in had attracted the attention of the local press] became interested again. Then the white students started chanting all kinds of anti-Negro slogans. We were called a little bit of everything. The rest of the seats except the three we were occupying had been roped off to prevent others from sitting down. A couple of boys took one end of the rope and made it into a hangman’s noose. Several attempts were made to put it around our necks. The crowd grew as more students and adults came in for lunch.
“We kept our eyes straight forward and did not look at the crowd except for occasional glances to see what was going on… Memphis suggested that we pray. We bowed our heads, and all hell broke loose. A man rushed forward, threw Memphis from his seat, and slapped my face. Then another man who worked in the store threw me against the adjoining counter…
“Down on my knees on the floor, I saw Memphis lying near the lunch counter with blood running out of the corners of his mouth. As he tried to protect his face, the man who’d thrown him down kept kicking him in the head…”

Summer assignment for 2013-2014 students

Welcome, new students!!!!

All you have to do is click on the words “AP SUMMER assignment,” and it will download to your computer!

AP SUMMER assignment 2013

Isn’t technology wonderful?

Remember, this must be hand-written and YOUR OWN WORK.

Make sure you include why a term is significant, since the definition for a person can change over time. For instance, George Washington will show up several times in your terms. Who he is in chapter 6, when he is an officer in the French and Indian War, is NOT the same as who he is in chapter 10, when he is our first president and a former commanding general of the Continental Army in the Revolution.

Here’s an example:
Leslie Scoopmire- AP history teacher at Pattonville High School, supreme commander of all AP US history students at PHS. Without her, I wouldn’t be using this website right now.

How to access your AP US history scores

1. Use your online account at

2. When you get an email, you will be able to access your scores sometime in probably late July….

You may need to include a section number… Ms. Caimi thinks it’s 7 or 8.


Have a wonderful summer!!!!

Instructions for tomorrow

1. Bring sharpened pencils or blue or black ink pens.
2. Bring a wristwatch that does not beep.
3. Sleep well and eat a good breakfast.
4. Bring photo ID.
5. Be at the multi-purpose room no later than 7:23. DO NOT BE LATE.
6. Bring a sweatshirt and wear long pants because that room gets cold.
7. Absolutely NO cellphones, iPods, iPads or any other electronic devices.

Be prepared and ready! Use your FRQ packets to review your material and plan out writing attack skills.

Good luck.

MC practice 1865-2000

1. The first federal agency which sought to improve the welfare of vulnerable citizens was
A. the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
B. the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
C. the Bureau of Indian Affairs
D. the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
E. the department of Health, Education, and Welfare

2. The 15th Amendment, ratified in 1870, was finally enforced by
A. the Civil Rights Act of 1964
B. the Equal Rights Amendment
C. the Volstead Act
D. the Voting Rights Act of 1965
E. the Wagner Act

3. The chief figure in the Teapot Dome scandal was
A. Albert Fall
B. Harry Daugherty
C. J. Frank Norris
D. Calvin Coolidge
E. Gifford Pinchot

4. Pres. McKinley asked for a declaration of war upon Spain because the
A. business community favored the conflict.
B. Spanish government had insulted him.
C. US had wanted to acquire Cuba for decades, and this would enable that to happen.
D. American people, fanned by the claims of yellow journalists, demanded it.
E. Teller Amendment had been passed.

5. The word “Balkanization” was coined from the disintegration of the country of
A. Balkanistan.
B. Albania.
C. Greece.
D. Yugoslavia.
E. Somalia.

6. The Filipino who led the rebellion against Spanish, American and Japanese occupation was
A. Valeriano Weyler.
B. Pasqual de Cerveza.
C. Dupuy de Lome.
D. Emilio Aguinaldo.
E. Ramon Macapagal.

7. The US gained a perpetual lease on the Panama Canal Zone in the
A. Hay- Bunau- Varilla Treaty.
B. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
C. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
D. Gentlemen’s Agreement.
E. Teller Amendment.

8. The Supreme Court’s “rule of reason” was a doctrine that stated that
A. businesses formed individual contracts with each employee.
B. socialists and anarchists could be jailed for their political speech.
C. the protections of the Constitution “followed the flag.”
D. only business combinations that “unreasonably” restricted trade were illegal.
E. the federal government’s attempts to impose an income tax were unconstitutional.

9. During Reagan’s presidency, US troops invaded
A. Grenada.
B. Nicaragua.
C. Panama.
D. Cuba.
E. El Salvador

10. Which year marked the high point for both Germany and Japan in World War II?
A. 1939
B. 1940
C. 1942
D. 1943
E. 1944

11. His chase of Alger Hiss as a suspected communist vaulted him into national prominence (and higher political office) as a member of HUAC. Who is he?
A. Joseph McCarthy
B. Richard Nixon
C. Whittaker Chambers
D. John F. Kennedy
E. Lyndon Johnson

12. After this battle, the French decided to pull out of Vietnam.
A. Tet Offensive
B. Khe Sahn
C. Hamburger Hill
D. Pusan Offensive
E. Dien Bien Phu

13. Practices such as buying on margin, speculation, and banks buying stocks
A. increased the overall prosperity in the US economy.
B. enabled the poor to gain more wealth.
C. led to increased volatility and instability in the stock market.
D. ensured that stock prices remained high.
E. led to a decrease in the number of stocks changing hands.

14. Carrie Nation was associated most strongly with the issue of
A. women’s suffrage.
B. prohibition.
C. the settlement house movement.
D. women’s labor laws.
E. passage of the 14th Amendment.

15. Sen. Joseph McCarthy denounced this war hero and ex-secretary of state under Truman for engaging in a conspiracy to cover up Communist subversion in the State Department.
A. Dwight Eisenhower
B. George Marshall
C. George Patton
D. John Bricker
E. Audie Murphy

16. Who warned that the working class would bear the brunt of the dying and would only become “cannon fodder” as part of American forces in World War I?
A. Woodrow Wilson
B. Henry Cabot Lodge
C. W. E. B. Du Bois
D. Robert La Follette
E. Eugene V. Debs

17. Booker T. Washington advocated which course of action to increase the rights of African Americans?
A. specialized training to demonstrate African Americans’ contributions to society and the economy
B. rigorous academic training to prove the intellectual capacity of African Americans compared to whites
C. the rejection of accomodationist attitudes as a betrayal of the black race
D. to directly challenge white supremacy immediately and without compromise
E. an emphasis on liberal arts colleges that admitted blacks

18. “General” Jacob Coxey and his “army” marched on Washington, D.C. to
A. demand a larger military budget.
B. protest the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
C. attempt to take over the War Department.
D. stir up considerable disorder in an attempted coup.
E. demand that the government relieve unemployment with a public works program.

Which party, whose members chose J. Strom Thurmond as its presidential candidate, was formed after the Democratic party added a civil rights plank to its platform in 1948?
A. States’ Rights Party
B. New Progressive Party
C. Liberty Party
D. Separate but Equal Party
E. White Citizens’ Party

19. One unusual and significant characteristic of the coal strike in 1902 was that
A. the union was officially recognized as the legal bargaining agent for the miners.
B. for a time the mines were seized by the national government and operated by federal troops.
C. the national government did not automatically side with the owners of the mines.
D. the owners quickly agreed to negotiate with labor representatives.
E. for the first time, the Supreme Court ruled the owners’ actions unconstitutional.

20. The American Protective Association
A. preached the social gospel that churches were obligated to help the New Immigrants
B. was led for many years by Jane Addams and Florence Kelley
C. sought to encourage mutual-aid associations
D. established settlement houses in major cities
E. supported immigration restrictions

21. Which work of literature was written in response to the “red scare” known as McCarthyism, and also gave the red scare its other nickname?
A. Death of a Salesman
B. Springtime for Hitler
C. Leave it to Beaver
D. The Grapes of Wrath
E. The Crucible

22. During the Second World War, much of Tokyo was destroyed by
A. an atomic bomb in a nearby suburb.
B. incendiary bombing with napalm.
C. shelling from US ships offshore.
D. looting by the Japanese people.
E. an earthquake and tsunami that struck in late 1944.

23. The public library movement across America was greatly aided by financial support from
A. the Morrill Act
B. Andrew Carnegie
C. John D. Rockefeller
D. women’s organizations
E. Johns Hopkins

24. In the 1908 Supreme Court decision of Muller v. Oregon the Supreme Court ruled that
A. sanitation codes were legal.
B. workingmen’s compensation was legal.
C. laws protecting female workers were legal.
D. antiliquor laws were constitutional.
E. antitrust laws were constitutional.

25. The US gained a virtual right of intervention in an “independent” Cuba in the
A. Insular Cases.
B. Foraker Act.
C. Teller Amendment.
D. Platt Amendment.
E. Guantanamo Bay Treaty.

26. The first shots in the Spanish-American War took place in the Philippines because
A. it was considered to be the weakest spot in the Spanish Empire.
B. that’s where Spanish saboteurs were believed to have sunk the USS Maine.
C. the new American steel fleet was nearby in Hong Kong when war was declared.
D. the Spanish treatment of the Filipinos was considered to be most brutal there.
E. that’s where American business interests were the most threatened.

27. Progressives adhered to all of the following goals EXCEPT
A. promoting economic and social justice.
B. using laws to promote morality.
C. limiting the role of the federal government.
D. the regulation of business practices.
E. expanding democracy.

28. The constitutionality of the internment of Japanese-Americans was upheld in the case of
A. Gong Lum v. California.
B. Suzuki v. US.
C. Korematsu v. US.
D. Wheeler v. Roosevelt.
E. Kurosawa v. White.

29. The “Star Wars” program altered the decades-long conventional thinking about nuclear weapons because it
A. called for a preemptive first strike when nuclear war was likely.
B. proposed massive retaliation against Soviet cities in the event of nuclear war.
C. emphasized defense against nuclear attack as the most effective form of nuclear capability.
D. effectively reduced the cost of the nuclear arms race.
E. offered to provide nuclear capability to countries that promised to oppose the USSR.

30. The Truman Doctrine was formulated in response to a possible communist take-over in
A. Berlin
B. Czechoslovakia
C. Cuba
D. Greece and Turkey
E. Iran

31. As a result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf,
A. Japan stalled an Allied victory.
B. Admiral “Bull” Halsey suffered his first loss.
C. Japan was nearly able to take Australia.
D. the US could bomb Japan from Hawai’i.
E. Japan was finished as a naval power.

32. The _________________ set out to limit the spread of vice and specifically outlawed the mailing of “obscene” material through the mail.
A. Connecticut Blue Laws
B. Pendleton Act
C. Comstock Laws
D. Workingman’s Act
E. Burlington Act

33. The 1955 Geneva Conference
A. unified the two Vietnams.
B. made Ngo Dinh Diem president of Vietnam.
C. called for two Vietnams to hold national elections within two years.
D. created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
E. established the permanent division of Vietnam.

34. President Truman risked US access to Middle Eastern oil supplies when he
A. recognized the new Jewish state of Israel.
B. refused to support the Saudi monarchy.
C. sent US military forces into Lebanon.
D. allowed the CIA to stage a coup in Iran.
E. supported British control over the Suez canal.

35. In 1956, when Hungary revolted against continued domination by the USSR, the US under President Eisenhower
A. sent money to the rebels.
B. did nothing to help defeat the communists.
C. refused to admit any Hungarian refugees.
D. gave only outdated military equipment to the freedom fighters.
E. threatened to end food shipments to the USSR if it intervened.

36. World War I had what effect on civil liberties in America?
A. They were threatened by President Wilson, but protected by the courts.
B. They were severely limited due to pressures for loyalty and conformity.
C. Most restricted along the Eastern seaboard due to fears of German submarine attacks.
D. They were most severely limited for those whose ethnic heritage was from one of the enemy countries.
E. They were greatly expanded since we sought to show that we were fighting to expand democracy.

37. This was a group of 14 Republican senators who absolutely refused to support any aspect of the League of Nations.
A. the irreconcilables
B. the obstructionists
C. the irreparables
D. the reservationists
E. the loyalists

38. The Pension Act of 1890 was an attempt to secure the votes of
A. former government employees.
B. Union army veterans.
C. Northern industrialists.
D. Western farmers.
E. industrial workers.

39. The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the
A. New York Central.
B. Northern Pacific.
C. Union Pacific.
D. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe.
E. Great Northern.

40. The Boland amendment
A. prevented the executive branch from funding the Nicaraguan rebels.
B. called for a special prosecutor to investigate impropriety in the executive branch.
C. mandated a balanced federal budget by 1991.
D. forbade any negotiations with terrorists holding Americans hostage.
E. mandated increased military spending in an effort to drive the USSR into oblivion.

Women’s rights timeline

Cool pdf from WomensRightstimeline This thing is very well done!

Terms you should know:
feme covert (coverture)
Phillis Wheatley
Anne Hutchinson
Salem Witchcraft Trials
New Jersey right to vote
Republican motherhood
Temperance, WCTU
Oberlin College
Mother Ann Lee
Daughters of Liberty
Emma Willard
Female Anti-Slavery Society
Lowell Mill Girls
Gibson girls
Cult of Domesticity
Margaret Fuller
Lucretia Mott
Emily Dickinson
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Frances Willard
Dorothea Dix
Lucy Stone
Susan B. Anthony,
Sojourner Truth, “Ain’t I a Woman?”
Amelia Bloomer, “bloomers”
“Susie B’s”
Seneca Falls Convention, Declaration of Sentiments, Vindication of the Rights of Women
Harriet Tubman
Carrie Chapman Catt
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Elizabeth Blackwell
Victoria Woodruff
Grimke sisters
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Alice Paul, Equal Rights Amendment
Henry Street Settlement, Hull House, Jane Addams, Florence Kelley, Lillian D. Wald
Mary Baker Eddy
Clara Barton
Mary Elizabeth Lease
Mary Harris “Mother” Jones
Margaret Sanger
Madame CJ Walker
Jeanette Rankin
Triangle Fire
League of Women Voters, 19th Amendment
Florence Sabin
Margaret Mead
Barbara Jordan, Shirley Chisholm
Mary McLeod Bethune
Althea Gibson, Wilma Rudolph
Eleanor Roosevelt, Frances Perkins
Phyllis Schlafly, STOP ERA
Gloria Steinem
Betty Friedan, NOW, the Feminine Mystique
Geraldine Ferraro
bell hooks
Madeleine Albright, Condoleeza Rice, Hillary Clinton

pink collar– “pink collar ghetto”
glass ceiling

The extra credit book critique form was posted yesterday….

And here’s the link, in case you need it…

Corporate history

Here’s some linky goodness.

The story of Standard Oil Trust:

The story of Bell Telephone:

The iron and steel industry:

Andrew Carnegie:

History of Ford Motor Company:

Timeline of General Electric Corporation:

History of J. P Morgan bank: this one’s not complementary but thorough- and there is the corporate version here:

Microsoft Corporation:

Dow Chemical Company:

More study questions for 1800-1850

What killed off the Federalist party?
Describe John Marshall’s philosophy as chief justice and be able to explain the impact of major decisions.
What difference did the War of 1812 make?
How did being president change Thomas Jefferson?
What madcap adventures was Aaron Burr involved in?
What were the benefits of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
Were there really good feelings during the Era of Good Feelings? When was this era?

1. Jefferson perceived navies as less dangerous than armies because
A. they were generally smaller in numbers.
B. they had little chance of starting a war.
C. they were less in contact with foreign powers.
D. they could not march inland and endanger liberties.
E. all of the above.

2. Tecumseh argued that Native Americans should
A. never give control of their land to whites.
B. move west of the Mississippi River.
C. not cede control of land to whites unless all Indians agreed.
D. exchange traditional ways for European ways.
E. fight as individual tribes and maintain independence.

3. The immediate goal of the Hartford Convention was to
A. seek financial aid from Britain.
B. allow New England militias to fight for the Americans.
C. secure financial assistance from the US government.
D. expand the activities of the “Blue Lights.”
E. create a new nation separate from the rest of the US.

4. The Battle of New Orleans
A. resulted in another American defeat and the recall of negotiators to peace talks.
B. helped the US win the War of 1812.
C. resulted in British troops being defeated by Andrew Jackson’s forces.
D. prevented America from taking Canada.
E. resulted in Cajuns being considered traitors.

4. Jefferson’s embargo failed for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
A. he underestimated the determination of the British.
B. he underestimated Britain’s dependence upon American trade.
C. Britain produced a bumper grain crop.
D. Latin America opened its ports for commerce.
E. he miscalculated the difficulty in enforcing it.

5. The property qualification to vote became practically meaningless by the 1840s in the West because
A. land was easily obtained.
B. other ways prevented the common man from voting.
C. so few owned land.
D. few on the frontier wanted to vote.
E. banks owned nearly all the land.

6. The Missouri Compromise caused many white southerners to
A. abandon national politics in favor of state politics.
B. fear additional federal attempts to limit states’ rights.
C. ally themselves with westerners to protect slavery.
D. oppose hard-money policies of the Bank of the US.
E. flood into the territories with their slaves.

7. The “South Carolina Exposition” was
A. an attempt to destroy the Union.
B. a pamphlet that advocated manifest destiny.
C. a pamphlet that advocated nullification.
D. an explanation of urban planning concepts.
E. the first World’s Fair held on US soil.

8. Andrew Jackson’s election as president represented
A. the return of Jeffersonian simplicity.
B. the hesitancy of the American people to elect military leaders.
C. the zenith of states’ rights over federal power.
D. the involvement of state governments in the economy.
E. the newly won political influence of the masses of the “common man.”

9. As president, John Quincy Adams
A. was much more successful than his father.
B. was more successful than he had been as secretary of state.
C. was one of the least successful presidents in history.
D. put many of his supporters on the federal payroll.
E. was successful only in building a national observatory.

10. President Andrew Jackson withdrew federal deposits from the 2nd Bank of the US and
A. spent it to renovate Washington DC.
B. deposited the money in Switzerland.
C. proposed the creation of the Capitol Bank.
D. withdrew the charter of the Bank of the US.
E. placed the funds in so-called “pet” banks he favored.

11. In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity; the South _______ for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed ______; and the East __________ for the other two regions.
A. grew cotton, eastern factory workers, made machines and textiles
B. grew cotton, southern slaves, made machines and textiles
C. raised grain, southern slaves, processed meat
D. raised corn, eastern factory workers, made furniture and tools
E. grew cotton; the flood of eastern immigrants; developed a banking system

12. The nullification controversy of 1828-1833 arose in response to
A.popular sovereignty
B. internal improvements
C. protective tariffs
D. the 2nd Bank of the US
E. federal restrictions on slavery

Review MC for the period 1800-1850

1. Which president’s administration is most associated with the Era of Good Feelings?
A. Thomas Jefferson
B. Andrew Jackson
C. James Monroe
D. Martin van Buren
E. John Quincy Adams

2. Which of the following Supreme Court decisions held that Congress had the right to establish a bank under the “necessary and proper” clause?
A. Plessy v. Ferguson
B. Schenck v. United States
C. Gibbons v. Ogden
D. McCulloch v. Maryland
E. Marbury v. Madison

3. The main architect of the Missouri compromise was
A. Henry Clay
B. Daniel Webster
C. Thomas Hart Benton
D. John C. Calhoun
E. Stephen Douglas

4. Which of the following is NOT associated with the “American System?”
A. Henry Clay
B. the Second Bank of the United States
C. bonuses for new industries
D. federally funded internal improvements
E. a protective tariff (also for revenue)

5. Which of the following statements about the Treaty of Ghent was NOT TRUE?
A. The signatories were the United States and Britain.
B. It did not address freedom of the seas.
C. It failed to address British impressment policy.
D. It settled the border disputes involving the Louisiana Territory.
E. It ended the War of 1812.

6. As chief justice, John Marshall helped ensure that
A. Aaron Burr was convicted of treason.
B. the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government.
C. states’ rights were protected.
D. both the Supreme Court and the president could declare a law unconstitutional.
E. the programs of Alexander Hamilton were overturned.

7. The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for
A. a separate peace treaty between New England and the British.
B. South Carolina’s secession from the Union.
C. war with England on the basis of interference with merchant shipping.
D. the dissolution of the Federalist party on the grounds of collaboration with the enemy.
E. a Constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before war was declared.

8. The Adams- Onis Treaty of 1819 gave the United States
A. California
B. Oregon
C. Florida
D. a defined border for Texas
E. a defined border with Mexico

9. The main point of contention in the Webster-Hayne debate of 1830 was
A. reform of the spoils system.
B. state nullification of federal laws.
C. the settlement of Missouri as a slave state.
D. the morality of slavery.
E. presidential veto power.

10. The leaders of New England states opposed the American System’s federally constructed roads because
A. canals were a superior method of transportation.
B. the Democratic-Republicans favored them.
C. they cost too much.
D. they were poorly constructed.
E. they would drain away needed population to the West.

11. Macon’s Bill No. 2
A. repealed the Embargo Act of 1807.
B. forbade American ships from leaving port for any destination whatsoever, including other American ports.
C. forbade American trade with Britain and France but offered to open trade with either country if they would declare a ceasefire in their war.
D. permitted trade with all nations but promised that is either Britain or France lifted its restrictions on American trade, the US would stop trading with the other.
E. halted trade with Britain.

12. The accomplishments of Lewis and Clark’s expedition included all of the following EXCEPT
A. treaties with several Indian nations.
B. knowledge of the Indians of the region.
C. a rich harvest of scientific information.
D. maps.
E. hair-raising adventure stories.

13. Groups which tended to support the Whig party included all of the following EXCEPT
A. many evangelical Protestants.
B. backers of southern states’ rights.
C. opponents of public education.
D. backers of the American System.
E. large northern industrialists.

14. Which of the following was NOT a provision of the original Monroe Doctrine?
A. The United States would use military intervention in the Americas if needed.
B. The United States would not intervene in European wars and conflicts.
C. European intervention in the Americas would be viewed as a threat to American security.
D. The Americas were politically different from Europe.
E. The Western Hemisphere was closed to further European colonization.

15. Which of the following was a roadblock to the admission of Texas to the Union after it proclaimed independence in 1836?
A. disagreement over the location of its southern boundary
B. its aggressive Native American population
C. the influential presence of the Catholic Church in its boundaries
D. racial opposition from nativists to adding a sizeable number of Tejanos
E. the intent to permit slavery in Texas

16. “The major problems of this country are the result of too many immigrants and the corrupt influence of the Papists…. Immigrants should be required to live in the United States before being allowed to vote.”
The quote above is representative of the views of which 19th century political party?
A. Know-Nothing party
B. Whig Party
C. Republican Party
D. Free Soil Party
E. Populist Party

17. Which writer is most associated with the “positive good” argument regarding slavery?
A. Henry Clay
B. George Fitzhugh
C. Stephen Douglas
D. Thaddeus Stevens
E. Frederick Douglass

18. The creation of the “market economy” in the 1820s refers to the rise of
A. cash crop agriculture
B. American factories
C. the Second Bank of the United States
D. the New England textile industry
E. subsistence agriculture

19. “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.” This statement was purportedly made by Andrew Jackson in reference to which Supreme Court case?
A. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
B. Scott v. Sanford
C. Gibbons v. Ogden
D. Marbury v. Madison
E. the treason trial of Aaron Burr

20. Which of the following was not a feature of life in pre-Civil War cities?
A. increasing population
B. increasing crime
C. extensive sewer systems
D. growth of slums
E. rapidly rising death rates