Archive for September, 2013

The Shot Heard ‘Round the World!

Poor William Dawes gets dissed again….

The Declaration of Independence and Slavery

Read this: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2h33.html

Questions chapter 9

Questions- Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution
Make sure you still know the definitions and significance of the terms. You can include them in your answers if you need to, however.

By the way, notice the boldfaced words in the questions below. They will be relevant to a DBQ handed out later.

1. What was the effect of the exodus of the Loyalists on American society after the war?
2. How exactly did Revolutionary rhetoric cause social upheaval?
3. What were the limits of Republican idealism when it came to disadvantaged social and demographic groups in American society?
4. What concept provided a counterweight or balance for the excesses of individualism in early American political thought?
5. How did the theory of “republican motherhood” affect women’s lives and expectations regarding their role in society?
6. What were the similar features of the many state constitutions? How did these influence the US Constitution as well as the debate over it?
7. How was “economic democracy” encouraged by specific actions of state governments in the early post-war years?
8. What economic benefits did America gain from independence?
9. Explain the economic disadvantages and dangers facing the new republic.
10. How did the economic situation (look at your answers to 7, 8, and 9) in 1786 influence the political situation as we attempted to establish a new government?
11. What was ironic about the use of the term “Union” (as on p. 180) to describe the American political system? (Look back on pages 179-180 and scan for mentions of unity or related concepts such as unanimity as well as the opposite concept of disunity as you consider your answer.) Consider HISTORICALLY the ability of the colonies to be unified.
12. Why were the executive and legislative branches so weak under the Articles of Confederation? Give specific reasons.
13. Explain the major weaknesses of the Articles, and what impact these weaknesses had. What is meant by calling the Articles “anemic” on p. 182?
14. What were the major achievements of the Confederation government?
15. What four foreign powers challenged American sovereignty the most in the post-war years? Why, and HOW?
16. What were the specific causes of Shays’ Rebellion? What effects did this uprising have politically? What was the significance?
17. What did Jefferson mean by the term “democratic despotism” on p. 185? What is the relation of this term to the term “mobocracy?”
18. Summarize the economic arguments of “paper moneyites” versus “sound money” proponents? What is the danger of paper currency? (You may need to research this)
19. Explain how economic instability and “unbridled republicanism” led to fears of “anarchy.” How did this influence the writing of the Constitution?
20. What were the common characteristics of those “demigods” who gathered eventually to “revise” the Articles? What were their three main goals?
21. How did enemies of America as an independent nation also ironically serve as “Founding Fathers,” according to p 187?
22. Explain each of the important political compromises that made up the Constitution.
23. What was the role of direct versus indirect voting in choosing government officials at the federal level?
24. What were the two great principles of the political theory of republicanism mentioned on p. 190?
25. Describe the differing political views between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. What kinds of people tended to either camp?
26. In general, how did the most radical of the Revolutionary generation respond to the Constitution, and why?
27. Why, specifically, did four states in particular resist approving the new Constitution?
28. What was the purpose of the essays known as The Federalist?
29. Explain the statement on p. 195 that “[t]he minority had triumphed- twice.” In particular consider the statement elsewhere on that page that “[t]he majority had not spoken.”
30. Explain, specifically, how the Constitution attempted to balance the needs for liberty (personal freedom) and order (security and protection).

Annotated Declaration of Independence

Read This and be ready to discuss: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/makingrev/rebellion/text8/decindep.pdf

Or try clicking here: decindep. I have placed copies of this outside my classroom.

This will provide part of the information if your Adobe reader is not working: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html

That list of grievances that Jefferson listed in the Declaration of Independence? Jefferson had been mulling them over for a long time: http://www.history.org/Almanack/life/politics/sumview.cfm

Read the Preamble to the Virginia Constitution: http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch1s4.html

Here is a link to the Virginia Declaration of Rights: http://www.history.org/almanack/life/politics/varights.cfm

Excerpts from Paine’s Common Sense

From the Gilder Lehrman site:

“I know not,” John Adams wrote in 1806, “whether any man in the world has had more influence on its inhabitants or affairs for the last thirty years than Thomas Paine.” After enduring many failures in his native England, Paine (1737-1809), whose father was a Quaker, arrived in Philadelphia in November 1774 bearing invaluable letters of introduction from Benjamin Franklin. By far the Revolution’s most important pamphleteer, Paine exerted enormous influence on the political thinking of the revolutionaries. His pamphlet Common Sense, which sold as many as 150,000 copies in the year after it was published in January 1776, demanded a complete break with Britain and establishment of a strong federal union. It was also a powerful attack on the idea of monarchy and hereditary privilege: For all men being originally equals, no one by birth could have a right to set up his own family in perpetual preference to all others forever…. [A king is] nothing better than the principal ruffian of some restless gang. Of more worth is one honest man to society and in the sight of God, than all the crowned ruffians that ever lived.

In the following pages I offer nothing more than simple facts, plain arguments, and common sense…. I have heard it asserted by some, that as America has flourished under her former connection with Great-Britain, the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument. We may as well assert that because a child has thrived upon milk, that is never to have meat, or that the first twenty years of our lives is to become a precedent for the next twenty. But even this is admitting more than is true; for I answer…that America would have flourished as much, and probably much more, had no European power taken any notice of her. The commerce by which she hath enriched herself are the necessaries of life, and will always have a market while eating is the custom of Europe.

But she has protected us, say some…. We have boasted the protection of Great Britain, without considering, that her motive was interest not attachment…. This new World hath been the asylum for the persecuted lovers of civil and religious liberty from every part of Europe…. As Europe is our market for trade, we ought to form no partial connection with any part of it. It is the true interest of America to steer clear of European contentions, which she never can do, while, by her dependence on Britain, she is made the make-weight in the scale of British politics. Europe is too thickly planted with Kingdoms to be long at peace, and whenever a war breaks out between England and any foreign power, the trade of America goes to ruin, because of her connection with Britain….

There is something absurd, in supposing a Continent to be perpetually governed by an island…. No man was a warmer wisher for a reconciliation than myself, before the fatal nineteenth of April, 1775 [the day of the battles of Lexington and Concord], but the moment the event of that day was made known, I rejected the hardened, sullen-tempered Pharaoh of England for ever; and disdain the wretch, that with the pretended title of FATHER OF HIS PEOPLE can unfeelingly hear of their slaughter, and composedly sleep with their blood upon his soul…. Where, say some, is the king of America? I’ll tell you, Friend, he reigns above, and doth not make havoc of mankind like the royal brute of Great Britain…. So far as we approve of monarchy…in America the law is king….

A government of our own is our natural right…. Ye that oppose independence now, ye know not what ye do: ye are opening the door to eternal tyranny…. There are thousands and tens of thousands, who would think it glorious to expel from the Continent, that barbarous and hellish power, which hath stirred up the Indians and the Negroes to destroy us….

O! ye that love mankind! Ye that dare oppose not only the tyranny but the tyrant, stand forth! Every spot of the old world is overrun with oppression. Freedom hath been hunted round the Globe. Asia and Africa have long expelled her. Europe regards her like a stranger, and England hath given her warning to depart. O! receive the fugitive, and prepare in time an asylum for mankind.

Chapter 8 Questions

Always include specific names, locations, and dates where possible.

1. What was the timing  between the battles of Lexington and Concord and the convening of the 2nd Continental Congress? What is the significance of the number of colonies who sent delegates to this meeting? What did most of the delegates originally seem to favor as the course of action to take?

2. What was the most important thing the Congress did and what were the reasons why they made this decision? What characteristics did George Washington have that made him a good choice? What qualities did he lack?

3. What was unusual about the time period from April 1775 to July 1776? What did the Continental Congress do in July 1775 that seemed at odds with military events during that time, and what was the response from the king in August 1775?

4. List and describe the early military engagements in the war in 1775. How did the invasion of Canada undercut colonial claims of fighting defensively based upon ideology?

5. What happened on Evacuation Day?

6. What were the specific reasons why the colonists delayed in declaring their outright independence until July of 1776?

7. Explain the basic republican ideology behind Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence? What were the main tenets about government articulated by both Paine and Jefferson? What conditions were considered necessary to have a successful republican government?

8. What were the examples the colonists drew upon when arguing the feasibility of self-government?

9. Summarize the grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence.

10. What were the specific tasks performed by the Patriot militia?

11. Explain the main differences between the Patriots and the Tories in terms of location, education, wealth, etc. Why did some remain Loyalists while others gambled everything by declaring themselves revolutionaries? How did most people feel about revolution?

12. Why was the Battle of Long Island significant? What were Washington’s two greatest successes in 1776-early 1777, and where were these located?

13. Create a simple chart detailing which British and American generals were associated with which battles, and the date and region in which the  battles took place.

14. What was the intent and significance of the Model Treaty? Who negotiated it?

15. When and why did France come to the aid of the colonists? What was the catalyst for their open support? What specific advantages did America gain? Were there any disadvantages?

16. What calamity struck the American forces on the heels of the French alliance?

17. How were indigenous peoples and the frontier affected by the war? Why did some native tribes fight for the British? What did the Treaty of Fort Stanwix do?

18. What do privateers do? What role did they play? How did the US Navy perform during the war? add some specific details to support your answer.

19. What happened at Yorktown? Why do some historians claim that it was not accurate to claim that the Americans won there?

20. What were the main provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, and why were they so relatively generous to the Americans?

MC practice 7

1. In 1763, a definite shift occurred in British-colonial relations when _________ assumed control of colonial policy.                      (129,d)
A. Charles Townsend
B. Lord North
C. George Grenville
D. William Pitt
E. King George III

2. Under mercantilist doctrine, British currency policies enforced in the colonies were intended to primarily benefit            (128,d)
A. backwoods farmers.
B. British merchants.
C. Virginia tobacco planters.
D. the British Crown.
E. New England merchants.

3. The Navigation Acts, as written, aroused colonial resentment because they  (128,d)
A. prevented the colonists from developing a mature, self-sustaining economy.
B. forced the South to adopt a single crop as the basis for their economy.
C. favored the northern colonies at the expense of the southern colonies.
D. forced the American colonists to engage in economic activity which was not profitable.
E. all of the above.

4. The “radical whigs” were most opposed to, and feared,           (127)
A. republicanism
B. a written constitution
C. a too powerful parliament
D. too much democracy
E. the arbitrary power of the monarchy

5. The British Crown’s (officially the King, but actually often the Prime Minister acting on the King’s behalf) right to use the royal veto over colonial legislation        (128)
A. was opposed by many members of the British Parliament.
B. prohibited colonists from participating in the Atlantic slave trade.
C. was used sparingly by the British government.
D. was used frequently to overturn laws passed in colonial assemblies.
E. was what finally provoked the War of Independence.

6. The first Navigation Laws were specifically designed to          (128, b)
A. encourage the American colonies to experiment with growing new crops.
B. enable the colonists to maximize the profits they could earn through the sale of their trade goods.
C. foster a colonial economy that could offer healthy competition with Britain’s economy.
D. eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade.
E. support the mapping of Atlantic trade routes.

7. Before 1763, the Navigation Laws          (128, d,b)
A.  were loosely or rarely enforced in the American colonies.
B. were stringently enforced in Britain’s Indian colonies.
C. were aggressively enforced in the American colonies.
D. were more detrimental to the British mainland rather than the colonies.
E. were effective at putting American smugglers out of business.

8. The first law ever passed by Parliament  for raising tax revenues in the colonies was       (129,d)
A. Stamp Act
B. Townshend Act
C. Quartering Act
D. Declaratory Act
E. Sugar Act

9. All of these were benefits Americans gained from mercantilism before 1763 EXCEPT     (128, d)
A. the protection of the greatest navy and army in the world without any cost to the colonists.
B.  Americans were allowed to trade freely with other countries on the open market.
C. some British merchants were not allowed to compete with Colonial merchants, giving the Americans a virtual monopoly.
D. Virginia tobacco planters enjoyed a monopoly of the British market.
E. London paid high prices for ship parts made by colonial shipbuilders.

10. Mercantilists believed that        (127,d)
A. power came from a small but concentrated colonial empire.
B. the mother country produced raw materials and the colonies produced the finished good.
C. a mother country needed to import more than export.
D. a country’s power was determined by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury.
E. colonies were a drain on the mother country and should be curtailed.