Chapter 20 questions

Answer fully and in detail with specifics. Use your own words.

1. What geographical truth did Lincoln point out in his inaugural address? Did Lincoln arrive in DC triumphantly? Explain.
2. What crazy scheme did Secretary of State William Seward propose to get the South to, in effect, “nullify” secession? Do you think he was joking?
3. What happened to most of the federal property in seceding states? What were the exceptions, and why were the exception important?
4. Describe the dilemma Lincoln faced regarding Ft. Sumter. How did the events at Ft. Sumter become symbolic to both the North and South? Who fired first, and on what excuse?
5. Why did public opinion change after Ft. Sumter? What is significant about the fact that Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 militiamen?
6. What were the Border states (also list them), and why did they not join the Confederacy? Why was it vital that the North keep these areas in the Union? How did this need influence strategy and goals– what lengths did Lincoln go through to keep them?
7. What happened in Missouri during the war? What about southern Illinois to southern Ohio? In modern Oklahoma (by the way, your book is not exactly correct about this)?
8. Why did Lincoln take care NOT to make antislavery one of his war aims? What WAS his stated war aim?
9. Create a chart about the strengths and weaknesses of the opposing sides. Make sure include military and political leadership, economic strength, etc.
10. What were the main characteristics of common soldiers on both sides? What was the greatest danger soldiers faced during the war? How did supplies impact one side over the other?
11. Why was cotton overestimated by Southerners as a way to gain influence and support overseas? What agricultural product eventually ended up being more persuasive in keeping Britain out?
12. What role did Britain play in the Civil War? Consider especially the blockade of the South by the Union navy (remember the Trent Affair, the Alabama and the Laird Rams). What role did Charles Francis Adams play in keeping the British out of the war?
13. What was the Southern navy like? What is a commerce raider? What role did Canada play during the fighting?
14. Who was Maximilian? How did Napoleon attempt to take advantage of the chaos in America?
15. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of Confederate political and constitutional structure. Why did Lincoln actually have an easier time of it?
16. Describe Lincoln’s record on civil liberties during the war (make sure you review the entire chapter)? Were these justified? Were they constitutional? Explain.
17. What is conscription and why was (is) it controversial? What were ways to evade conscription, and how and why did some protest this method of raising troops? What were the differences between conscription in the North versus in the South?
18. Why were Irish Americans likely to resent being drafted, from an economic standpoint (this is review of material we have discussed in class)?
19. How did the Union attempt to raise revenue to pay for the war? List and explain the various methods used, and their efficacy.
20. What was the intent of the National Banking System? How did each side try to pay for the war?
21. Why did the South have more trouble financing the war? What was the economic impact on the South? Include statistics.
22. Why did the North actually prosper during the war? Include statistics.
23. What corrupt practices occurred during the war, and why were they possible?
24. How did women contribute to the war effort on both sides?

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