Archive for December, 2013

Chapter 24 questions

Due on the first day back from break!

Chapter 24 questions

1. How, specifically, was railroad construction financed (including help from the federal government) in the late 19th century? What were the main railroad companies and the entrepreneurs who were associated with them?
2. What was the only railroad built without government aid? What are “hells on wheels?” How was the first transcontinental railroad completed, by whom (both entrepreneurs and workers) and where did the “wedding” take place?
3. What effects did the creation of a railroad network have on the American economy? How did it affect the telling of time? What technological improvements did the railroads encourage? What industries grew as a result of this network? Why was the Mesabi range important?
4. Explain pools, stock watering, and other dubious means used by railroad “barons” to make a profit. What were they attempting to do to competition? Why weren’t these practices regulated or otherwise halted? What was the first federal regulatory agency in history, and what was it supposed to do?
5. What impact did interchangeable parts and other new technologies have upon employment patterns, including women? What were “Gibson girls,” and what kinds of jobs did they do?
6. Which foreign countries were most involved in investment in American enterprises? How involved were these investors in the actual day-to-day management of American companies?
7. Make a chart comparing and explaining the main businesses and practices of Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jay Gould, and James Duke. Make sure to include these terms: interlocking directorate, pool, horizontal integration, trust, holding company,
8. Create a chart of the great inventors and their innovations: Edison, Bell, Bessemer (and Kelly), McCormick
9. What is the difference between “capital goods” and “consumer goods?” Which was most emphasized during this time period?
10. How was US Steel created, by whom, and why was it notable? What other corporations begun during this time are still around today?
11. What did Standard Oil actually do? Where was it located? What products were made from petroleum at this point? What immoral/illegal methods did this company use to ruthlessly crush its competition? What invention would later make this company even more profitable (that most of you can’t imagine living without?)
12. What was “the Gospel of Wealth?” How did this attempt to justify vast accumulations of wealth?
13. What is “Social Darwinism” and “survival of the fittest” in terms of economics? What were the implications then for poor people? What thinkers actually influenced this more than Darwin?
14. How did the 14th Amendment end up being interpreted as helping corporations during this time (and even now)? Be specific.
15. What did the Sherman Anti-Trust Act attempt to do? Why didn’t it work better? What was one group that it was ironically used against that probably hadn’t been anticipated, and what was the reasoning/justification for this?
16. How did the South begin to industrialize during this time? What manufacturing began to develop there, and why? What did Henry Grady urge?
17. What obstacles stood in the way of Southern development? What was the “Pittsburgh plus” pricing system’s impact?
18. What were working conditions like in the factories? What demographic group was most affected by industrialization, and why? How did “punching a clock” change traditional patterns of life? What was the Contact Labor Law of 1885?
19. What methods did companies use to try to suppress unions? Why did much of the general public feel negatively toward unions (consider Haymarket Square and the term “labor trust”), and when did that finally begin to change? Who was John P. Altgeld?
20. Make a chart of the major unions, their leaders, their membership composition, dates, etc. Did any of these survive until today? Don’t forget “Mother…”

Essay topics for 5th period Final

This could be worth some extra credit on your final. You are welcome to research these online, but your words must be your own. If there is any suspicion that written responses have been plagiarized, they will be discarded. The more specifics you offer, the more points you may earn, as well as for the depth of your analysis.

Written responses

You may choose between:

A Explain and analyze the impact of the 2nd Great Awakening on American society.

B. Explain and analyze how the struggle over Reconstruction demonstrated the struggle for supremacy between the executive and legislative branches of government.

Extra credit books to read

If you so choose, you will complete a project on one of these books by April 22 at 7:23 am. You may only do this extra credit project if all assignments have been turned in. This can be worth up to 3% of your final grade, depending on the effort required to read the book and the effort put into the project over the book. But if you are not going to devote effort to this, DO NOT DO IT, because there will be no “pity points” awarded. This will not be accepted late.

Many of these are also available on Kindle and/or iBooks or Nook, and are often cheaper and readily available that way.

Alan Taylor— American Colonies: The Settling of North America
Arthur M. Schlessinger— The Cycles of American History
Nathaniel Philbrick— Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War
David D. Hall— A Reforming People: Puritanism and the Transformation of Public Life in New England
Michael Klarman— From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality
Kenneth T. Jackson— Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of America
Joshua E. London— Victory in Tripoli: How America’s War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a Nation
Christopher Tomlins— Freedom Bound: Law, Labor, and Civic Identity in Colonizing English America, 1580-1865.
Gary B. Nash— History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past
Fred Anderson— The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War
Daniel J. Boorstin– The Americans: The Democratic Experience
Daniel J. Boorstin– The Americans: The National Experience
Robert Middlekauff— The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789
Jon Butler— Becoming America: The Revolution before 1776
Jon Meacham— American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of a Nation
Mary Beth Norton— Founding Mothers & Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society
Joseph J. Ellis— Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation
Gordon S. Wood— The Radicalism of the American Revolution
Bernard Bailyn— The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution
Melvyn Leffler— For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War
C. Vann Woodward— The Strange Career of Jim Crow
Joseph Wheelan— Mr. Adams’s Last Crusade: John Quincy Adams’s Extraordinary Post-Presidential Life in Congress
David M. Kennedy— Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945
Grant Foreman— Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians
Daniel Rasmussen— American Uprising: The Untold Story of America’s Largest Slave Revolt
Sean Wilentz— The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln
Harry L. Watson— Liberty and Power: The Politics of Jacksonian America
Bernard De Voto— The Course of Empire
Bernard De Voto— The Year of Decision: 1846
Sylvia D. Hoffert— When Hens Crow: The Woman’s Rights Movement in Antebellum America
Steven E. Woodworth— Manifest Destinies: America’s Westward Expansion and the Road to the Civil War
Elliott West– The Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, & the Rush to Colorado
Edmund S. Morgan– American Slavery, American Freedom
Bruce Levine— Half Slave and Half Free: The Roots of Civil War
Richard Hofstadter— Anti-Intellectualism in American Life
Eric Foner— The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery
Eric Foner— Reconstruction
Doris Kearns Goodwin— Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
Drew Gilpin Faust— Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War
Daniel Walker Howe–What Hath God Wrought: the Transformation of America, 1815–1848
Robert Morgan— Lions of the West: Heroes and Villains of Westward Expansion
Ira Berlin— Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk About Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Emancipation
James M. McPherson— Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era
Gary W. Gallagher— The Union War
Winthrop D. Jordan–The White Man’s Burden: Historical Origins of Racism in the United States
Emory M. Thomas— The Confederate Nation: 1861-1865
Andrew F. Smith— Starving the South: How the North Won the Civil War
Harriet Beecher Stowe— Uncle Tom’s Cabin
David S. Reynolds— Mightier than the Sword: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Battle for America
Amanda Foreman— A World on Fire: Britain’s Crucial Role in the American Civil War
John Lewis Gaddis— We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History
John Lewis Gaddis— The Cold War: A New History

Essay topics for Final 1st hour

This could be worth some extra credit on your final. You are welcome to research these online, but your words must be your own. If there is any suspicion that written responses have been plagiarized, they will be discarded. The more specifics you offer, the more points you may earn, as well as for the depth of your analysis.

Written responses

You may choose between:

A Explain and analyze the innovations that women contributed in the Civil War era, especially in the field of medicine.

B. Explain and analyze the impact of the presidency of Andrew Jackson in American politics and government. In what ways did his presidency represent a political shift and realignment?

Essay topic for Final for 2nd hour

This could be worth some extra credit on your final. You are welcome to research these online, but your words must be your own. If there is any suspicion that written responses have been plagiarized, they will be discarded. The more specifics you offer, the more points you may earn, as well as for the depth of your analysis.

Written responses

You may choose between:

A Explain and analyze the struggle to ensure that freedmen would receive the same civil rights as other citizens fr0m 1866 to 1872. Make sure you include all relevant specific terms and that you underline them or highlight them.

B. Explain and analyze the long-term impact of technological innovations of the Civil War era, both on the conduct of the war and in the post-war era.

Chapter 23 questions- These are due December 11, 2013

Always be specific in your answer and include dates as well!

1. What were the two parties’ differing views of  Reconstruction, and how did that influence their choices in the election of 1868? What does “waving the bloody shirt” and “the bloody chasm”mean?

2. What was the “Ohio Idea” and how would have affected the economy? Why do debtors like inflation?

3. Why were Republicans especially indebted to the 15th Amendment for their victory in 1868?

4. What were the practical effects of the Fisk/Gould conspiracy and of the Tweed Ring scandal?

5. What does “graft” and “honest graft” mean? Who eventually brought down Tweed?

6. Describe the Credit Mobilier, Belknap and Whiskey Ring scandals. What does this indicate about Grant’s abilities?

7. Describe the strange story of the Liberal Republicans and Horace Greeley. Why did Democratic support of Greeley seem strange? What six sins did regular Republicans accuse Greeley of?

8. What caused the Panic of 1873? What is the difference between “hard-money” and “cheap-money” supporters and what they wanted (include a discussion of the Resumption Act)?

9. What was the “Crime of ‘73” and how did the amount of silver in circulation influence it? Why did debtors want the government to encourage inflation, and how exactly was that to be done?

10. What was the political fallout regarding all this struggle over currency and monetary policy?

11. Why were elections so close during the “Gilded Age?” What were the real differences between Republicans and Democrats?

12. What on Earth are “Half-Breeds,” “Stalwarts,” and “Mugwumps?”

13. Why was Ohio so politically important? What role did it play in each of the elections in this chapter?

14. Why was the election of 1876 thrown into turmoil? How was this resolved?

15.List the specific benefits the South received as a result of the election of 1876. What were the long-term consequences of the election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877?

16. How exactly were former slaves (and poor whites) virtually enslaved after the end of Reconstruction?

17. What caused the great railroad strike of 1877? How was this settled? Which side did the federal government take? Why could workers not unify to demand better treatment and wages?

18. Why was the Chinese Exclusionary Act passed? What is the difference between jus soli and jus sanguinis?

19. What role did patronage play in the second assassination of a US president? What reform was passed in the wake of this assassination, and what did it do?

20. Why was the presidential campaign of 1884 one of the dirtiest ever? What were the accusations hurled on both sides?

21. How did the Civil War influence politics throughout the last half of the 19th century?

22. Where did the “Billion Dollar Congress” get all of its money, and why was it determined to spend it all? (Consider the previous question as well).

23. What did the Populists want? Where were they strongest? Why did Southern blacks end up losing as the Populists became more powerful?

24. How did Cleveland end up being elected again in 1892 after losing in 1888?

25. How bad was the Depression of 1893? Why did currency issues crop up again? How was the crisis averted? Why is this so ironic, given what has happened in the US in 2008-2009)?

26. Who are the “Forgettable presidents” and why are they called that?

27. Did this era deserve the name “Gilded Age?” Explain.

Chapter 22 questions- These are due Monday, Dec. 9, 2013

Remember to check the schedule under upcoming deadlines for how the semester has been adjusted due to EOC week.


1. How did the end of the war affect most Southerners’ views regarding their understanding of the union and their “lost cause?” What happened to most Confederate leaders?
2. How quickly was emancipation implemented? What tasks did most freedmen then set out to do and rights did they claim for the first time?
3. Who were the Exodusters, and how many were there? Where were they headed, and why? Why did this movement end?
4. What was the full name and mission of the Freedmen’s Bureau? Who led it? What was it most successful at? How did white Southerners view it, and why was that kind of spiteful? What precedent did this agency set in terms of government responsibility for citizens? What did Andrew Johnson do to it and why? What impact did this have on his presidency?
5. What factors had led to choosing Andrew Johnson as Lincoln’s vice president in 1864? What group in particular did he champion as a politician? Who were the leaders of the Radical Republicans who opposed him so vehemently?
6. What were the basic differences between presidential and congressional Reconstruction. Start by comparing Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction with the Wade Davis Bill. Which was more lenient, and why? How was Johnson’s plan unique, and which one was it most similar to? What is the “conquered provinces” theory, and who promoted it? Why were Congressional Republicans concerned about what would happen if the Southern states rapidly regained their representation in Congress?
7. What was the main purpose of the Black Codes? What were the major provisions of these? How did Northerners interpret these kinds of laws?
8. What were the main provisions of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866? What happened to this bill, and why? How is this law connected to the 14th Amendment? What did the 14th Amendment do? What did it say about Confederate officials? Which Southern states ratified the 14th Amendment in 1866?
9. What did the 15th Amendment do? Why were feminists disappointed in it (as well as with the 14th Amendment?
10. Discuss the activities of other groups besides the Freedmen’s Bureau that attempted to help freedmen—the Union League and the American Missionary Association, in particular. How did African American women get involved in securing rights for blacks, and what limits were placed upon them?
11. What were “Radical Reconstruction” governments’ accomplishments? How corrupt were they compared to governments elsewhere? What are scalawags and carpetbaggers?
12. Where, when how, and why did the Ku Klux Klan rise up originally? What were its goals? What attempts did the federal government make to suppress the Klan (include dates!!!!)?
13. Why did Congress finally attempt to impeach Johnson? What was the specific charge? Was this legitimate? How did Johnson escape?
14. How and why did we attain Alaska? Why was this important?
15. What were the basic philosophical controversies that were confronted during Reconstruction, besides how to readmit Southern states to full membership in the Union?
16. Make a chart detailing the intents of each of these laws:
– Military Reconstruction Act
-Tenure of Office Act
-Freedmen’s Bureau Act
-Force Acts

Snow Day

Stay off the roads, man.


Pickett’s Charge– the End

Remember, never never NEVER run in front of a cannon. You will become very hole-y.

Pickett’s Charge from Gettysburg (the Killer Angels), pt 1