Archive for the ‘Chapt. 2’ Category

British Exploration and Settlement Review

By an actual AP teacher. A 10 minute review of the beginnings of English America.

Who were the Puritans?

This video can also be found at

Helpful tips and links to help you with Chapters 1-4

Hi there! I hope you are still having a wonderful summer! We will be hitting the ground running on the first day of school in our mad race to a 5 on the AP exam on Wednesday, May 15, 2013… a mere 9 months EXACTLY from the first day of school!

During that time we will be covering both broadly and specifically approximately 520 years of the history of what we now call the United States.

The first thing you should do as you work on your summer assignment (extra credit but necessary!- see below) is familiarize yourself with this website. Right under the title The Scoop on History are a series of tabs. These are different pages of the website. They include schedules for chapter deadlines, links for more information, lists of terms used on terms checks, etc. These are constantly being updated. Check them often.

On the right are a series of widgets. They include boxes for reminders, a list of the five most recent posts, and ways to access both posts on this site as well as helpful links for you.

Here’s how to find old posts: Please note that posts are always categorized by at least two labels when possible– the CHAPTER in the book with which the post references, as well as a broader TOPIC category. For instance, this post will be tagged for chapters 1,2,3, and 4, as well as Colonization and Exploration. This way, you can always find a specific post in one of several places– if you can’t remember the chapter, you should be able to remember the category. Underneath that box, posts are also archived by month and year posted, as well. You can look in the categories for chapters 1-4 or “Colonization” and “Exploration” to find posts to help you at any time, and some of these will be reposted on the main page here later, as well.

Below those two boxes, there is a BLOGROLL. This includes links that I have found to be helpful in general when you are studying US history. There are links to websites about Colonization, Greek and Latin vocabulary, and even better– PRACTICE QUIZZES to help you study.

You are STRONGLY ENCOURAGED to form study groups to help study, so long as you do your OWN WORK in your OWN WORDS on assignments. You are STRONGLY ENCOURAGED to leave questions or appropriate comments in the comments section of posts so that someone may be able to help you or that you may help others.

You should check this website often. I will often post things here to help you… like I am about to do right now. Here are some helpful links for Chapters 1-4.

Definitions of vocabulary in the American Pageant– This isn’t terms so much as words you might have encountered as you read with which you may not be familiar, like “caravel,” etc.

America in Class from the National Humanities Center– Click on the box that says “American Beginnings” and use the subsections– contact, exploration, settlement, permanence, power. The framing questions for each section are very good in helping you get an long-term overview of the significance of what we will be talking about in the next two weeks.

Timeline of Exploration and Early Colonization— Short and sweet.

News article from 2008 on new discoveries about native settlement in North America–  Oooh! Fossil POO!

Jamestown Timeline—

AP Summer assignment- Extra Credit but NECESSARY

Welcome to Advanced Placement United States History! In order to help us get the most out of this class and to provide a cushion for your grade as you transition from covering ONE semester of college level material (as you covered if you took AP European history or regular World History), to covering TWO semesters worth of material, I have created this summer assignment for some sizeable EXTRA CREDIT.

I’ll say it again, this is EXTRA CREDIT, but NECESSARY, and will raise your semester 1 grade approximately 3 percentage points. This is a LOT of extra credit. You seriously want to do it.

The purposes are many: First, it will make you familiar with the textbook. Second, it will allow you to raise your grade. Third, it will make you ready for the first test of the year over chapters 1-4 in the second week of school. Fourth, we will be glad to have covered this material quickly after our sixth snow day hits next year. This assignment helps us to avoid that problem. Fifth, did I mention it will raise your grade????? I thought so.

In 2011, the Document Based Essay on the AP US history exam was about Richard Nixon, whose presidency was from 1968-1974. MANY AP teachers and students were upset because they did not manage to cover this material in class. We here at PHS did not have that concern, even with the snow days and the tornado, thanks to this assignment and diligent work on everyone’s part.

Now, I am not just tossing you out there to learn this material on your own. First of all, I have a classroom blog, and it is obvious that you were wise and bookmarked it since you are reading this here. Good job! Visit it this site OFTEN! You can use the comments section to study together or ask questions. This blog has categories for each chapter as well as for subtopics and links to review websites. It is designed to help your comprehension and expand my ability to help you on your way to a solid classroom experience and a 5 on the AP exam.

If you look to the right, you will see a box below the quote of the week that lists the last five posts. Below that you will see another box entitled “categories.” You want to use the categories “Beginning of Year” and for Chapters 1-4 right now. I will post things here over the summer to help you get this assignment done.

So this extra credit assignment is due on the third day of school next fall. It needs to be handwritten neatly and legibly, and make sure you do your own work. You are welcome to work together on this assignment, but you cannot copy from your friends. This assignment will not help you if you yourself do not do it.

So please make sure you checked out a book from me before you leave for the summer.

I look forward to seeing you next year!

Leslie Scoopmire, AP US history teacher



Define the terms, explain the significance of the terms, and answer the questions FULLY. This is extra credit, but is necessary.

Here is an example of how to define a term:

Iroquois Confederacy- AKA the Six Nations, a league of related Native tribes (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca originally, with the Tuscarora moving into the area from the Carolinas and joining the Confederacy in the 1700s) united by Algonquian language and longhouse religion. They suffered under the competition between their English trading partners and the French and their Indian allies, although officially they attempted to maintain neutrality. At their greatest point they occupied land from Kentucky to Michigan but were most concentrated in upper New York state.

Chapter Study Guides—Semester 1—Scoopmire

Chapter 1 New World Beginnings, 33,000 BC- AD 1769

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Mississippian culture____Anasazi____ Cahokia

Iroquois____L’Anse aux Meadows____Vinland

Ferdinand/Isabella____Christopher Columbus____“sugar revolution”

Taino ____ Treaty of Tordesillas____Tenochtitlan

encomienda____Giovanni Caboto____St. Augustine (FL)

Juan de Onate____Battle of Acoma____Pope’s Rebellion

conquistadores____mestizos____“three sister” agriculture

Juan Ponce de Leon____Moctezuma____Junipero Serra

Ferdinand Magellan____Hernan Cortes____mission Indians

Francisco Coronado____tidewater region____Franciscans

Hernando de Soto____Malinche____“Black Legend”

Vasco Nunez de Balboa____Quetzalcoatl____Hispaniola

Bartolome de Las Casas____maize____Robert La Salle

Mound Builders____Battle of Acoma____Alamo

Pueblo culture____Mound Builders____Norse


Be able to explain the following fully:

— What kind of environmental impact did Native Americans have?  Why do you think this impact was significantly different from that of the Europeans?

— What was the impetus for European exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries?

— Describe the impact of interaction between Europe and the Americas, including the global effects of the Columbian exchange of plants, and of the introduction of European illnesses into the Americas.

— Describe the system of encomienda.  What was the ethical rationale for this system? What were the practical effects of this system?

Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, 1500-1733

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Sir Walter Raleigh____Roanoke Island____Virginia

“surplus population”____charter____Powhatan

“starving time”____“Irish tactics”____1st Anglo-Powhatan War

2nd Anglo-Powhatan War____“three Ds”____Powhatan’s Confederacy

Piedmont____Algonquians____“seminary of sedition”

Barbados Slave Code____Restoration period____Deganawidah

Tuscaroras____Iroquois Confederacy____“soil butchery”

John Smith____John Rolfe____indentured servant

Lord Baltimore____Charles II ____Hiawatha

Lords Proprietors____Savannah Indians____Lord de la Warr

Tuscaroras____Yamasees____James Oglethorpe

Handsome Lake ____John Wesley____House of Burgesses

primogeniture____joint-stock company____Act of Toleration

Virginia Company ____Iroquois Confederacy____proprietorship

Be able to explain the following fully:

–Trace the establishment of the five southeastern English colonies of Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, and Georgia, outlining their similarities and differences.

— How did the Indians respond to English settlement? What factors prevented them from resisting effectively? What attempts were made by the Indians to overcome this?

— How did English land laws influence the English settlement of North America?

— Outline the beginning of the plantation system and its importation to America.  How did colonists deal with the need for labor before slavery became widespread?

— Go to on the internet. What is the Fall Line? How did it influence Native American and English settlement?

Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619-1700

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Anne Hutchinson____William Penn____Sir Edmund Andros

Roger Williams____John Winthrop____“the elect”

William Bradford____John Cotton____predestination

covenant____Separatists____Bible Commonwealth

Mayflower Compact____Puritans____Dominion of New England

Navigation Laws____freemen____antinomianism

Pilgrims____New England Confederation

Fundamental Orders____Quakers____King Philip’s War

“salutary neglect”____Middle Colonies____“bread colonies”

Eurocentrism____the Chesapeake____“Blue Laws”

“Protestant work ethic”____Metacom____“royal colony”

Be able to explain the following fully:

— Describe the three separate regions of English colonies.  How did each region differ from the others, and why?

— Describe the Puritan/Separatist drive to establish colonies.  How did religious beliefs inform their actions?

–Respond to the following: “Early America was a haven for religious dissidents.”

–Explain the relationship between the mother country and the English colonies, including an explanation of the era of “neglect” and its aftermath. Contrast the New England Confederation with the Dominion of New England.

— Describe the interaction between the English and the Native Americans. How were the Puritans and Quakers different in their relations with natives?  Compare English actions with those of the Spanish.

Chapter 4 American Life in the Seventeenth Century, 1607-1692

Identify the historical significance of the following:

William Berkeley____Nathaniel Bacon____headright system

middle passage____Bacon’s Rebellion____“freedom dues”

Royal African Company____Gullah____midwifery

Salem Witch Trials____Halfway Covenant____gentry

the Chesapeake____ “white slaves”____“freedom dues”

House of Burgesses____“Yankee ingenuity”

Be able to explain the following fully:

— Describe the abuses of the indentured servant system.  How did the conditions freedmen faced become potentially explosive?  How did the headright system exacerbate the frustrations of the freedmen? Why do you think “No slave uprising in American history matched the scale of Bacon’s Rebellion?”

— List the pros and cons of being a woman in the Chesapeake during the 17th century.  Why would so few women live to be forty years old?  What were the challenges faced by early American families? Explain the statement that “New England invented grandparents.”

— List the factors that made importing African slaves more appealing after 1680. Why did so many slaves have to be imported during the years before 1720?  What caused the decline of importation?  Describe how cultural interaction influenced both the colonists and the slaves.

— Why did the Puritans face a crisis of faith in the mid-17th century?  How did they attempt to deal with this? Evaluate the efficacy of this transition.

Review MC 1 for semester 1 final

We will discuss these on the first pair of B/C days, so for most of you that will be Tuesday. Please print these off and bring them with you to class that day.

These questions are over chapters 1-4. First attempt to see how many of the answers you know without looking them up. Make a mark next to those you felt confident about. After we go over these in class, you will know areas you need to concentrate upon when studying.

1. Which tribe was a member of the Iroquois Confederacy?
A. Aztecs
B. Mohawks
C. Anasazi
D. Incas
E. Mayas

2. The immediate issue in dispute in Bacon’s Rebellion was
A. the jailing of individuals or seizure of their property for failure to pay taxes during an economic downturn
B. the under-representation of the backcountry settlers in Virginia’s legislature
C. the refusal of large planters to honor the terms of their contracts with former indentured servants
D. the perceived failure of Virginia’s governor to protect the colony’s frontier area from attacks by Indians
E. Governor Berkeley’s manipulation of tobacco prices for the benefit of himself and a small clique of friends

3. Which of the following best describes the view of Native Americans regarding property?
A. A portion of lands should remain untouched for the use of future generations
B. Land should be handed down from father to eldest sons (primogeniture)
C. The tribe owned the land in common with each other, while individuals were allowed to use the land but not sell it
D. The crops grown by one were considered the property of all
E. A tribal member could only transfer land within his own clan or family

4. Why is L’Anse aux Meadows significant in the history of North America?
A. It marks the first example of pre-Columbian European settlement and contact with indigenous people on this continent
B. It is the location of the first known cultivation of maize in North America outside of Mexico
C. It is an example of a highly developed Native nation-state in North America
D. It contains the oldest fossil record of Native American inhabitants on the North American continent
E. It was a rare example of a settled Native American community which had forsaken nomadism

5. In 1494, Pope Alexander’s Treaty of Tordesillas established the line of demarcation granting
A. all of the land north of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Spanish, and all of the land south of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Portugese
B. all of the land east of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Spanish
C. Portugal the right to establish a colonial empire in South America
D. all of the land west of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Spanish, and all of the land east of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Portugese
E. a partition between Spanish, Portuguese and French lands in the Americas

6. The Columbian Exchange would best be described as
A. the trade network established between the Eastern Hemisphere and the Americas
B. the new agricultural goods brought to the Eastern Hemisphere and the Americas
C. the arrival of European agricultural goods and livestock in the Americas
D. the introduction of European diseases that decimated indigenous populations in the Americas
E. the exchange of biological, ecological and other commodities exchanged among the Eastern Hemisphere and the Americas

7. What role did the Catholic Church play in Spain’s rule of its colonial possessions in North America?
A. The pope directly rules the colonies through the Spanish, requiring papal approval for all policies in the colonies
B. The Spanish monarchy ordered priests, including many of the Franciscan order, to convert the indigenous people to Catholicism, which also sustained the policy of encomienda
C. The papacy provided the majority of the funding for Spanish exploration, and therefore retained most of the riches gained from the North American possessions, which were then used to counter the Protestant Reformation
D. Responsibilities to the Catholic Church dominated expansion policies into the northern territories over economic concerns
E. The Spanish missions reported to the Pope rather than the Spanish monarchy

8. Puritan (Calvinist) doctrine included the acceptance of
A. the idea of a covenant with God.
B. the pope’s supremacy.
C. antinomianism.
D. the doctrine of good works.
E. the King as final religious authority.

9. The original purpose of the headright system was to
A. establish a basic system of laws within the Piedmont region of Virginia.
B. ensure separation between slaves and indentured servants to prevent uprisings by resentful laborers.
C. open up more land for rice and corn cultivation to be used to feed the slave population, thus encouraging its expansion.
D. keep non-Protestants from taking part in colonial government.
E. ensure a steady source of labor for the Virginia Colony by giving a grant of land for each indentured servant brought to America.

10. The financial means for England’s first permanent colonization in America were provided by
A. Queen Elizabeth I.
B. an expanding wool trade.
C. a joint-stock company.
D. the law of primogeniture.
E. a royal proprietor.

11. Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia were all similar in that they were all
A. proprietary colonies.
B. economically dependent upon the export of a staple crop.
C. able to live in peace with the Native Americans.
D. founded as refuges for persecuted sects in England.
E. founded after the restoration of Charles II to the throne.

12. The colony of South Carolina in the 17th and early 18th centuries prospered
A. because of its thriving shipbuilding industry.
B. only after Georgia was established.
C. as a result of the importation of Indian slaves.
D. by developing close economic ties with the British West Indies.
E. under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.

13. The document known as “A Model of Christian Charity,” by John Winthrop, promotes the idea that the Puritans
A. should care more about riches than about God, because laziness was a sign of a lack of religious piety.
B. should be careful not to do anything that would promote witchcraft.
C. believed they were setting an example for the world in creating the perfect society.
D. should only live in cities on hills.
E. should expel anyone who failed to live up to Puritan standards since that would make the rest of the world doubt Puritan intentions.

14. As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams
A. established religious freedom for all but Jews and Catholics.
B. advocated harsh treatment for the native tribes in the area since they were pagan.
C. returned to allegiance to the Anglican Church.
D. fined and stockaded those who did not attend weekly worship services.
E. established complete religious freedom for all, known as “liberty of conscience.”

15. Identify the statement that is FALSE.
A. The Indian presence frustrated the colonists, who desperately wanted Indian land.
B. The Powhatans, despite their apparent unity, lacked the ability to make an effective opposition to the well-organized Europeans.
C. The Powhatans were extremely resistant to European-borne diseases, unlike other Indian groups.
D. Once the English began growing their own food crops, the Powhatans no longer had any valuable trade goods to offer the colonists.
E. The Powhatans served no economic function for the Virginia colonists.

16. George Calvert, also known as Lord Baltimore, was given a grant of land in the Chesapeake region
A. as a haven for persecuted English Catholics.
B. as an opportunity to invest in that colony’s maritime industry.
C. after failing to colonize the Carolinas.
D. for Quakers who had been evicted from Pennsylvania.
E. in order to prevent France from seizing that territory.

17. Under 16th and 17th century law, which of the following was not considered to be chattel property?
A. animals
B. indentured servants
C. slaves
D. children
E. wives

18. What was the major purpose of the Toleration Act of 1649?
A. It extended voting rights to non-Protestants in New England.
B. It was an attempt to maintain order in Boston after the passage of the Coercive Acts.
C. It was hoped to be useful in suppressing rebellions such as the one led by Nathaniel Bacon.
D. It protected Catholic rights in Maryland from the influx of Protestant colonists.
E. It improved the condition of indentured servants in the middle colonies.

19. James I of England strongly disliked the concept of Virginia’s House of Burgesses because
A. it was disrupted by political wrangling and did not accomplish its main duties.
B. it refused to send taxes to the British government.
C. he believed it sought to undermine his position as head of the church.
D. he believed that the idea of self-government was treasonous.
E. all of the above.

20.The New England Confederation
A. included all the New England colonies.
B. was an invitation-only association of Puritan colonies designed to improve colonial defense after the Pequot War.
C. made the New Englanders feel that their natural rights and “rights as Englishmen” were being stripped from them and led the American colonies to begin to seek independence from England.
D. was created by the English government to streamline its administration of the colonies and enforcement of the Navigation Laws.
E. was an economic and trade alliance meant to enable smuggling. during the era of salutary neglect.

Some extra questions to consider…

Might these help you understand the material as well as help you on the test? YES.

Who was Bartolomeo de las Casas, and what did he claim about Spanish colonization efforts that later became part of the Black Legend?

What did the headright system entail?

What did the Virginia Company originally hope to accomplish in the New World?

Why was the colony of Georgia founded?

What did Anne Hutchinson believe that got her into trouble with Massachusetts’ authorities?

How was New Netherland different from its neighboring colonies?

What were the causes of King Philip’s War, and what were the consequences?

Why, specifically, were Quakers unpopular in England?

How did Pennsylvania’s policies toward the Indians differ from the rest of the colonies in North America?

Who was William Bradford, and why was he important?

Who, exactly, were “the elect?” What were the practical effects of the belief in “predestination?”

What was the Act of Toleration, and how “tolerant” was it?

Although Africans were first brought to Jamestown in 1619, why weren’t they immediately preferred to indentured servants as the main source of labor?

What were the differences between the New England Confederation and the Dominion of New England?

What was meant by “salutary neglect,” specifically?

What was the most populous colony in the American colonies by 1700?

What did Sir Edmond Andros do to attempt to reassert the power of the English king?

Why did the English colonists’ relations with the Powhatans eventually sour?

What were two major exports of the Carolinas early in the settlement period?

What role did John Smith play in the founding of Jamestown?

What was the purpose of the Connecticut Blue Laws?

What impact did the Barbados slave codes have upon the American colonies, particularly in the South?

In what ways were the Crusaders indirectly responsible for the discovery of the New World?

What were the differences between families in the Chesapeake area versus families in New England?

A Six-Year-Old explains the Wampanoag Indians

Oh my, have you ever seen anything cuter??????? I love the way she says “wigwams” and “Squanto.” Did you know that the Indians made pumpkin pie?

This video can be found at