Archive for the ‘Chapt. 4’ Category

Study words for 1-4 terms check

These will be the words that I will draw from to make your terms check over chapters 1-4 which you will take on Monday.
It will be a matching format quiz.

middle passage
Fundamental Orders
Mayflower Compact
Jonathan Edwards
Handsome Lake
Bartolomeo de las Casas
Nathaniel Bacon
Anne Hutchinson
“Blue Laws”
Halfway Covenant
Salutary neglect
Michel-Guillaume de Crevecoeur
“Black Legend”
Christine Heyrman (try searching for her on the blog!)
House of Burgesses
freedom dues
Roger Williams
“The elect”
Treaty of Tordesillas
Protestant work ethic
John Smith
James Oglethorpe
Indentured servants
Regulator Movement
Bible Commonwealth
Act of Toleration
headright system

Bacon’s Declaration in the Name of the People

Declaration in the Name of the People
(Modernized Spelling Version)
Nathaniel Bacon, 30 July 1676

The Declaration of the People.

1. For having upon specious pretences of public works raised great unjust taxes upon the Commonality for the advancement of private favorites and other sinister ends, but no visible effects in any measure adequate, For not having during this long time of his Government in any measure advanced this hopeful Colony either by fortifications Towns or Trade.

2. For having abused and rendered contemptible the Magistrates of Justice, by advancing to places of Judicature, scandalous and Ignorant favorites.

3. For having wronged his Majesty’s prerogative and interest, by assuming Monopoly of the Beaver trade, and for having in that unjust gain betrayed and sold his Majesty’s Country and the lives of his loyal subjects, to the barbarous heathen.

4. For having, protected, favored, and emboldened the Indians against his Majesty’s loyal subjects, never contriving, requiring, or appointing any due or proper means of satisfaction for their many Invasions, robberies, and murders committed upon us.

5. For having when the Army of English, was just upon the track of those Indians, who now in all places burn, spoil, murder and when we might with ease have destroyed them: who then were in open hostility, for then having expressly countermanded, and sent back our Army, by passing his word for the peaceable demeanor of the said Indians, who immediately prosecuted their evil intentions, committing horrid murders and robberies in all places, being protected by the said engagement and word past of him the said Sir William Berkeley, having ruined and laid desolate a great part of his Majesty’s Country, and have now drawn themselves into such obscure and remote places, and are by their success so emboldened and confirmed, by their confederacy so strengthened that the cries of blood are in all places, and the terror, and [consternation] of the people so great, are now become, not only a difficult, but a very formidable enemy, who might at first with ease have been destroyed.

6. And lately when upon the loud outcries of blood the Assembly had with all care raised and framed an Army for the preventing of further mischief and safeguard of this his Majesty’s Colony.

7. For having with only the privacy of some few favorites, without acquainting the people, only by the alteration of a figure, forged a Commission, by we know not what hand, not only without, but even against the consent of the people, for the raising and effecting civil war and destruction, which being happily and without blood shed prevented, for having the second time attempted the same, thereby calling down our forces from the defense of the frontiers and most weakly exposed places.

8. For the prevention of civil mischief and ruin amongst ourselves, whilst the barbarous enemy in all places did invade, murder and spoil us, his Majesty’s most faithful subjects.

Of this and the aforesaid Articles we accuse Sir William Berkeley as guilty of each and every one of the same, and as one who hath traitorously attempted, violated and Injured his Majesty’s interest here, by a loss of a great part of this his Colony and many of his faithful loyal subjects, by him betrayed and in a barbarous and shameful manner exposed to the Incursions and murder of the heathen, And we doe further declare these the ensuing persons in this list, to have been his wicked and pernicious counselors Confederates, aiders, and assisters against the Commonality in these our Civil commotions.

Sir Henry Chichley
William Claiburn Junior
Lieut. Coll. Christopher Wormeley
Thomas Hawkins
William Sherwood
Phillip Ludwell
John Page Clerke
Robert Beverley
John Cluffe Clerke
Richard Lee
John West
Thomas Ballard
Hubert Farrell
William Cole
Thomas Reade
Richard Whitacre
Mathew Kempe
Nicholas Spencer
Joseph Bridger

And we do further demand that the said Sir William Berkeley with all the persons in this list be forthwith delivered up or surrender themselves within four days after the notice hereof, Or otherwise we declare as follows.

That in whatsoever place, house, or ship, any of the said persons shall reside, be hidden, or protected, we declare the owners, Masters or Inhabitants of the said places, to be confederates and traitors to the people and the estates of them is also of all the aforesaid persons to be confiscated, and this we the Commons of Virginia doe declare, desiring a firm union amongst our selves that we may jointly and with one accord defend our selves against the common Enemy, and let not the faults of the guilty be the reproach of the innocent, or the faults or crimes of the oppressors divide and separate us who have suffered by their oppressions.

These are therefore in his Majesty’s name to command you forthwith to seize the persons above mentioned as Traitors to the King and Country and them to bring to Middle plantation, and there to secure them until further order, and in case of opposition, if you want any further assistance you are forthwith to demand it in the name of the people in all the Counties of Virginia.

Nathaniel Bacon
General by Consent of the people.

Governor Berkeley on Bacon’s Rebellion

On Bacon’s Rebellion
Governor William Berkeley, 19 May 1676

The declaration and Remonstrance of Sir William Berkeley his most sacred Majesty’s Governor and Captain General of Virginia

Showeth That about the year 1660 Col. Mathews the then Governor dyed and then in consideration of the service I had done the Country, in defending them from, and destroying great numbers of the Indians, without the loss of three men, in all the time that war lasted, and in contemplation of the equal and uncorrupt Justice I had distributed to all men, Not only the Assembly but the unanimous votes of all the Country, concurred to make me Governor in a time, when if the Rebels in England had prevailed, I had certainly dyed for accepting it, `twas Gentlemen an unfortunate Love, showed to me, for to show myself grateful for this, I was willing to accept of this Government again, when by my gracious Kings favor I might have had other places much more profitable, and less toilsome then this hath been. Since that time that I returned into the Country, I call the great God Judge of all things in heaven and earth to witness, that I do not know of any thing relative to this Country wherein I have acted unjustly, corruptly, or negligently in distributing equal Justice to all men, and taking all possible care to preserve their proprieties, and defend the from their barbarous enemies.

But for all this, perhaps I have erred in things I know not of, if I have I am so conscious of human frailty, and my own defects, that I will not only acknowledge them, but repent of, and amend them, and not like the Rebel Bacon persist in an error, only because I have committed it, and tells me in diverse of his Letters that it is not for his honor to confess a fault, but I am of opinion that it is only for devils to be incorrigible, and men of principles like the worst of devils, and these he hath, if truth be reported to me, of diverse of his expressions of Atheism, tending to take away all Religion and Laws.

And now I will state the Question betwixt me as a Governor and Mr. Bacon, and say that if any enemies should invade England, any Counselor, Justice of peace or other inferior officer, might raise what forces they could to protect his Majesty’s subjects, But I say again, if after the King’s knowledge of this invasion, any the greatest peer of England, should raise forces against the king’s prohibition this would be now, and ever was in all ages and Nations [facing] treason. Nay I will go further, that though this peer was truly zealous for the preservation of his King, and subjects, and had better and greater abilities then all the rest of his fellow subjects, do his King and Country service, yet if the King (though by false information) should suspect the contrary, it were treason in this Noble peer to proceed after the King’s prohibition, and for the truth of this I appeal to all the laws of England, and the Laws and constitutions of all other Nations in the world, And yet further it is declared by this Parliament that the taking up Arms for the King and Parliament is treason, for the event showed that what ever the pretence was to seduce ignorant and well affected people, yet the end was ruinous both to King and people, as this will be if not prevented, I do therefore again declare that Bacon proceeding against all Laws of all Nations modern and ancient, is Rebel to his sacred Majesty and this Country, nor will I insist upon the swearing of men to live and dye together, which is treason by the very words of the Law.

Now my friends I have lived 34 years amongst you, as uncorrupt and diligent as ever Governor was, Bacon is a man of two years amongst you, his person and qualities unknown to most of you, and to all men else, by any virtuous action that ever I heard of, And that very action which he boasts of, was sickly and foolishly, and as I am informed treacherously carried to the dishonor of the English Nation, yet in it, he lost more men then I did in three years War, and by the grace of God will putt myself to the same dangers and troubles again when I have brought Bacon to acknowledge the Laws are above him, and I doubt not but by God’s assistance to have better success then Bacon hath had, the reason of my hopes are, that I will take Council of wiser men then my self, but Mr. Bacon hath none about him, but the lowest of the people.

Yet I must further enlarge, that I cannot without your help, do any thing in this but dye in defense of my King, his laws, and subjects, which I will cheerfully do, though alone I do it, and considering my poor fortunes, I can not leave my poor Wife and friends a better legacy then by dyeing for my King and you: for his sacred Majesty will easily distinguish between Mr. Bacons actions and mine, and Kings have long Arms, either to reward or punish.

Now after all this, if Mr. Bacon can show one precedent or example where such actions in any Nation what ever, was approved of, I will mediate with the King and you for a pardon, and excuse for him, but I can show him an hundred examples where brave and great men have been putt to death for gaining Victories against the Command of their Superiors.

Lastly my most assured friends I would have preserved those Indians that I knew were [utterly] at our mercy, to have been our spies and intelligence, to find out our bloody enemies, but as soon as I had the least intelligence that they also were treacherous enemies, I gave out Commissions to destroy them all as the Commissions themselves will speak it.

To conclude, I have don what was possible both to friend and enemy, have granted Mr. Bacon three pardons, which he hath scornfully rejected, supposing himself stronger to subvert then I and you to maintain the Laws, by which only and God’s assisting grace and mercy, all men might hope for peace and safety. I will add no more though much more is still remaining to Justify me and condemn Mr. Bacon, but to desire that this declaration may be read in every County Court in the Country, and that a Court be presently called to do it, before the Assembly meet, That your approbation or dissatisfaction of this declaration may be known to all the Country, and the Kings Council to whose most revered Judgments it is submitted, Given the 30th day of May, a happy day in the 35th year of his most sacred Majesty’s Reign, Charles the second, who God grant long and prosperously to Reign, and let all his good subjects say Amen.

Summer assignment for 2013-2014 students

Welcome, new students!!!!

All you have to do is click on the words “AP SUMMER assignment,” and it will download to your computer!

AP SUMMER assignment 2013

Isn’t technology wonderful?

Remember, this must be hand-written and YOUR OWN WORK.

Make sure you include why a term is significant, since the definition for a person can change over time. For instance, George Washington will show up several times in your terms. Who he is in chapter 6, when he is an officer in the French and Indian War, is NOT the same as who he is in chapter 10, when he is our first president and a former commanding general of the Continental Army in the Revolution.

Here’s an example:
Leslie Scoopmire- AP history teacher at Pattonville High School, supreme commander of all AP US history students at PHS. Without her, I wouldn’t be using this website right now.

British Exploration and Settlement Review

By an actual AP teacher. A 10 minute review of the beginnings of English America.

Helpful tips and links to help you with Chapters 1-4

Hi there! I hope you are still having a wonderful summer! We will be hitting the ground running on the first day of school in our mad race to a 5 on the AP exam on Wednesday, May 15, 2013… a mere 9 months EXACTLY from the first day of school!

During that time we will be covering both broadly and specifically approximately 520 years of the history of what we now call the United States.

The first thing you should do as you work on your summer assignment (extra credit but necessary!- see below) is familiarize yourself with this website. Right under the title The Scoop on History are a series of tabs. These are different pages of the website. They include schedules for chapter deadlines, links for more information, lists of terms used on terms checks, etc. These are constantly being updated. Check them often.

On the right are a series of widgets. They include boxes for reminders, a list of the five most recent posts, and ways to access both posts on this site as well as helpful links for you.

Here’s how to find old posts: Please note that posts are always categorized by at least two labels when possible– the CHAPTER in the book with which the post references, as well as a broader TOPIC category. For instance, this post will be tagged for chapters 1,2,3, and 4, as well as Colonization and Exploration. This way, you can always find a specific post in one of several places– if you can’t remember the chapter, you should be able to remember the category. Underneath that box, posts are also archived by month and year posted, as well. You can look in the categories for chapters 1-4 or “Colonization” and “Exploration” to find posts to help you at any time, and some of these will be reposted on the main page here later, as well.

Below those two boxes, there is a BLOGROLL. This includes links that I have found to be helpful in general when you are studying US history. There are links to websites about Colonization, Greek and Latin vocabulary, and even better– PRACTICE QUIZZES to help you study.

You are STRONGLY ENCOURAGED to form study groups to help study, so long as you do your OWN WORK in your OWN WORDS on assignments. You are STRONGLY ENCOURAGED to leave questions or appropriate comments in the comments section of posts so that someone may be able to help you or that you may help others.

You should check this website often. I will often post things here to help you… like I am about to do right now. Here are some helpful links for Chapters 1-4.

Definitions of vocabulary in the American Pageant– This isn’t terms so much as words you might have encountered as you read with which you may not be familiar, like “caravel,” etc.

America in Class from the National Humanities Center– Click on the box that says “American Beginnings” and use the subsections– contact, exploration, settlement, permanence, power. The framing questions for each section are very good in helping you get an long-term overview of the significance of what we will be talking about in the next two weeks.

Timeline of Exploration and Early Colonization— Short and sweet.

News article from 2008 on new discoveries about native settlement in North America–  Oooh! Fossil POO!

Jamestown Timeline—

AP Summer assignment- Extra Credit but NECESSARY

Welcome to Advanced Placement United States History! In order to help us get the most out of this class and to provide a cushion for your grade as you transition from covering ONE semester of college level material (as you covered if you took AP European history or regular World History), to covering TWO semesters worth of material, I have created this summer assignment for some sizeable EXTRA CREDIT.

I’ll say it again, this is EXTRA CREDIT, but NECESSARY, and will raise your semester 1 grade approximately 3 percentage points. This is a LOT of extra credit. You seriously want to do it.

The purposes are many: First, it will make you familiar with the textbook. Second, it will allow you to raise your grade. Third, it will make you ready for the first test of the year over chapters 1-4 in the second week of school. Fourth, we will be glad to have covered this material quickly after our sixth snow day hits next year. This assignment helps us to avoid that problem. Fifth, did I mention it will raise your grade????? I thought so.

In 2011, the Document Based Essay on the AP US history exam was about Richard Nixon, whose presidency was from 1968-1974. MANY AP teachers and students were upset because they did not manage to cover this material in class. We here at PHS did not have that concern, even with the snow days and the tornado, thanks to this assignment and diligent work on everyone’s part.

Now, I am not just tossing you out there to learn this material on your own. First of all, I have a classroom blog, and it is obvious that you were wise and bookmarked it since you are reading this here. Good job! Visit it this site OFTEN! You can use the comments section to study together or ask questions. This blog has categories for each chapter as well as for subtopics and links to review websites. It is designed to help your comprehension and expand my ability to help you on your way to a solid classroom experience and a 5 on the AP exam.

If you look to the right, you will see a box below the quote of the week that lists the last five posts. Below that you will see another box entitled “categories.” You want to use the categories “Beginning of Year” and for Chapters 1-4 right now. I will post things here over the summer to help you get this assignment done.

So this extra credit assignment is due on the third day of school next fall. It needs to be handwritten neatly and legibly, and make sure you do your own work. You are welcome to work together on this assignment, but you cannot copy from your friends. This assignment will not help you if you yourself do not do it.

So please make sure you checked out a book from me before you leave for the summer.

I look forward to seeing you next year!

Leslie Scoopmire, AP US history teacher



Define the terms, explain the significance of the terms, and answer the questions FULLY. This is extra credit, but is necessary.

Here is an example of how to define a term:

Iroquois Confederacy- AKA the Six Nations, a league of related Native tribes (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca originally, with the Tuscarora moving into the area from the Carolinas and joining the Confederacy in the 1700s) united by Algonquian language and longhouse religion. They suffered under the competition between their English trading partners and the French and their Indian allies, although officially they attempted to maintain neutrality. At their greatest point they occupied land from Kentucky to Michigan but were most concentrated in upper New York state.

Chapter Study Guides—Semester 1—Scoopmire

Chapter 1 New World Beginnings, 33,000 BC- AD 1769

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Mississippian culture____Anasazi____ Cahokia

Iroquois____L’Anse aux Meadows____Vinland

Ferdinand/Isabella____Christopher Columbus____“sugar revolution”

Taino ____ Treaty of Tordesillas____Tenochtitlan

encomienda____Giovanni Caboto____St. Augustine (FL)

Juan de Onate____Battle of Acoma____Pope’s Rebellion

conquistadores____mestizos____“three sister” agriculture

Juan Ponce de Leon____Moctezuma____Junipero Serra

Ferdinand Magellan____Hernan Cortes____mission Indians

Francisco Coronado____tidewater region____Franciscans

Hernando de Soto____Malinche____“Black Legend”

Vasco Nunez de Balboa____Quetzalcoatl____Hispaniola

Bartolome de Las Casas____maize____Robert La Salle

Mound Builders____Battle of Acoma____Alamo

Pueblo culture____Mound Builders____Norse


Be able to explain the following fully:

— What kind of environmental impact did Native Americans have?  Why do you think this impact was significantly different from that of the Europeans?

— What was the impetus for European exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries?

— Describe the impact of interaction between Europe and the Americas, including the global effects of the Columbian exchange of plants, and of the introduction of European illnesses into the Americas.

— Describe the system of encomienda.  What was the ethical rationale for this system? What were the practical effects of this system?

Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, 1500-1733

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Sir Walter Raleigh____Roanoke Island____Virginia

“surplus population”____charter____Powhatan

“starving time”____“Irish tactics”____1st Anglo-Powhatan War

2nd Anglo-Powhatan War____“three Ds”____Powhatan’s Confederacy

Piedmont____Algonquians____“seminary of sedition”

Barbados Slave Code____Restoration period____Deganawidah

Tuscaroras____Iroquois Confederacy____“soil butchery”

John Smith____John Rolfe____indentured servant

Lord Baltimore____Charles II ____Hiawatha

Lords Proprietors____Savannah Indians____Lord de la Warr

Tuscaroras____Yamasees____James Oglethorpe

Handsome Lake ____John Wesley____House of Burgesses

primogeniture____joint-stock company____Act of Toleration

Virginia Company ____Iroquois Confederacy____proprietorship

Be able to explain the following fully:

–Trace the establishment of the five southeastern English colonies of Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, and Georgia, outlining their similarities and differences.

— How did the Indians respond to English settlement? What factors prevented them from resisting effectively? What attempts were made by the Indians to overcome this?

— How did English land laws influence the English settlement of North America?

— Outline the beginning of the plantation system and its importation to America.  How did colonists deal with the need for labor before slavery became widespread?

— Go to on the internet. What is the Fall Line? How did it influence Native American and English settlement?

Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619-1700

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Anne Hutchinson____William Penn____Sir Edmund Andros

Roger Williams____John Winthrop____“the elect”

William Bradford____John Cotton____predestination

covenant____Separatists____Bible Commonwealth

Mayflower Compact____Puritans____Dominion of New England

Navigation Laws____freemen____antinomianism

Pilgrims____New England Confederation

Fundamental Orders____Quakers____King Philip’s War

“salutary neglect”____Middle Colonies____“bread colonies”

Eurocentrism____the Chesapeake____“Blue Laws”

“Protestant work ethic”____Metacom____“royal colony”

Be able to explain the following fully:

— Describe the three separate regions of English colonies.  How did each region differ from the others, and why?

— Describe the Puritan/Separatist drive to establish colonies.  How did religious beliefs inform their actions?

–Respond to the following: “Early America was a haven for religious dissidents.”

–Explain the relationship between the mother country and the English colonies, including an explanation of the era of “neglect” and its aftermath. Contrast the New England Confederation with the Dominion of New England.

— Describe the interaction between the English and the Native Americans. How were the Puritans and Quakers different in their relations with natives?  Compare English actions with those of the Spanish.

Chapter 4 American Life in the Seventeenth Century, 1607-1692

Identify the historical significance of the following:

William Berkeley____Nathaniel Bacon____headright system

middle passage____Bacon’s Rebellion____“freedom dues”

Royal African Company____Gullah____midwifery

Salem Witch Trials____Halfway Covenant____gentry

the Chesapeake____ “white slaves”____“freedom dues”

House of Burgesses____“Yankee ingenuity”

Be able to explain the following fully:

— Describe the abuses of the indentured servant system.  How did the conditions freedmen faced become potentially explosive?  How did the headright system exacerbate the frustrations of the freedmen? Why do you think “No slave uprising in American history matched the scale of Bacon’s Rebellion?”

— List the pros and cons of being a woman in the Chesapeake during the 17th century.  Why would so few women live to be forty years old?  What were the challenges faced by early American families? Explain the statement that “New England invented grandparents.”

— List the factors that made importing African slaves more appealing after 1680. Why did so many slaves have to be imported during the years before 1720?  What caused the decline of importation?  Describe how cultural interaction influenced both the colonists and the slaves.

— Why did the Puritans face a crisis of faith in the mid-17th century?  How did they attempt to deal with this? Evaluate the efficacy of this transition.

Review MC 1 for semester 1 final

We will discuss these on the first pair of B/C days, so for most of you that will be Tuesday. Please print these off and bring them with you to class that day.

These questions are over chapters 1-4. First attempt to see how many of the answers you know without looking them up. Make a mark next to those you felt confident about. After we go over these in class, you will know areas you need to concentrate upon when studying.

1. Which tribe was a member of the Iroquois Confederacy?
A. Aztecs
B. Mohawks
C. Anasazi
D. Incas
E. Mayas

2. The immediate issue in dispute in Bacon’s Rebellion was
A. the jailing of individuals or seizure of their property for failure to pay taxes during an economic downturn
B. the under-representation of the backcountry settlers in Virginia’s legislature
C. the refusal of large planters to honor the terms of their contracts with former indentured servants
D. the perceived failure of Virginia’s governor to protect the colony’s frontier area from attacks by Indians
E. Governor Berkeley’s manipulation of tobacco prices for the benefit of himself and a small clique of friends

3. Which of the following best describes the view of Native Americans regarding property?
A. A portion of lands should remain untouched for the use of future generations
B. Land should be handed down from father to eldest sons (primogeniture)
C. The tribe owned the land in common with each other, while individuals were allowed to use the land but not sell it
D. The crops grown by one were considered the property of all
E. A tribal member could only transfer land within his own clan or family

4. Why is L’Anse aux Meadows significant in the history of North America?
A. It marks the first example of pre-Columbian European settlement and contact with indigenous people on this continent
B. It is the location of the first known cultivation of maize in North America outside of Mexico
C. It is an example of a highly developed Native nation-state in North America
D. It contains the oldest fossil record of Native American inhabitants on the North American continent
E. It was a rare example of a settled Native American community which had forsaken nomadism

5. In 1494, Pope Alexander’s Treaty of Tordesillas established the line of demarcation granting
A. all of the land north of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Spanish, and all of the land south of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Portugese
B. all of the land east of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Spanish
C. Portugal the right to establish a colonial empire in South America
D. all of the land west of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Spanish, and all of the land east of the meridian not already claimed by Christian nations to the Portugese
E. a partition between Spanish, Portuguese and French lands in the Americas

6. The Columbian Exchange would best be described as
A. the trade network established between the Eastern Hemisphere and the Americas
B. the new agricultural goods brought to the Eastern Hemisphere and the Americas
C. the arrival of European agricultural goods and livestock in the Americas
D. the introduction of European diseases that decimated indigenous populations in the Americas
E. the exchange of biological, ecological and other commodities exchanged among the Eastern Hemisphere and the Americas

7. What role did the Catholic Church play in Spain’s rule of its colonial possessions in North America?
A. The pope directly rules the colonies through the Spanish, requiring papal approval for all policies in the colonies
B. The Spanish monarchy ordered priests, including many of the Franciscan order, to convert the indigenous people to Catholicism, which also sustained the policy of encomienda
C. The papacy provided the majority of the funding for Spanish exploration, and therefore retained most of the riches gained from the North American possessions, which were then used to counter the Protestant Reformation
D. Responsibilities to the Catholic Church dominated expansion policies into the northern territories over economic concerns
E. The Spanish missions reported to the Pope rather than the Spanish monarchy

8. Puritan (Calvinist) doctrine included the acceptance of
A. the idea of a covenant with God.
B. the pope’s supremacy.
C. antinomianism.
D. the doctrine of good works.
E. the King as final religious authority.

9. The original purpose of the headright system was to
A. establish a basic system of laws within the Piedmont region of Virginia.
B. ensure separation between slaves and indentured servants to prevent uprisings by resentful laborers.
C. open up more land for rice and corn cultivation to be used to feed the slave population, thus encouraging its expansion.
D. keep non-Protestants from taking part in colonial government.
E. ensure a steady source of labor for the Virginia Colony by giving a grant of land for each indentured servant brought to America.

10. The financial means for England’s first permanent colonization in America were provided by
A. Queen Elizabeth I.
B. an expanding wool trade.
C. a joint-stock company.
D. the law of primogeniture.
E. a royal proprietor.

11. Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia were all similar in that they were all
A. proprietary colonies.
B. economically dependent upon the export of a staple crop.
C. able to live in peace with the Native Americans.
D. founded as refuges for persecuted sects in England.
E. founded after the restoration of Charles II to the throne.

12. The colony of South Carolina in the 17th and early 18th centuries prospered
A. because of its thriving shipbuilding industry.
B. only after Georgia was established.
C. as a result of the importation of Indian slaves.
D. by developing close economic ties with the British West Indies.
E. under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.

13. The document known as “A Model of Christian Charity,” by John Winthrop, promotes the idea that the Puritans
A. should care more about riches than about God, because laziness was a sign of a lack of religious piety.
B. should be careful not to do anything that would promote witchcraft.
C. believed they were setting an example for the world in creating the perfect society.
D. should only live in cities on hills.
E. should expel anyone who failed to live up to Puritan standards since that would make the rest of the world doubt Puritan intentions.

14. As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams
A. established religious freedom for all but Jews and Catholics.
B. advocated harsh treatment for the native tribes in the area since they were pagan.
C. returned to allegiance to the Anglican Church.
D. fined and stockaded those who did not attend weekly worship services.
E. established complete religious freedom for all, known as “liberty of conscience.”

15. Identify the statement that is FALSE.
A. The Indian presence frustrated the colonists, who desperately wanted Indian land.
B. The Powhatans, despite their apparent unity, lacked the ability to make an effective opposition to the well-organized Europeans.
C. The Powhatans were extremely resistant to European-borne diseases, unlike other Indian groups.
D. Once the English began growing their own food crops, the Powhatans no longer had any valuable trade goods to offer the colonists.
E. The Powhatans served no economic function for the Virginia colonists.

16. George Calvert, also known as Lord Baltimore, was given a grant of land in the Chesapeake region
A. as a haven for persecuted English Catholics.
B. as an opportunity to invest in that colony’s maritime industry.
C. after failing to colonize the Carolinas.
D. for Quakers who had been evicted from Pennsylvania.
E. in order to prevent France from seizing that territory.

17. Under 16th and 17th century law, which of the following was not considered to be chattel property?
A. animals
B. indentured servants
C. slaves
D. children
E. wives

18. What was the major purpose of the Toleration Act of 1649?
A. It extended voting rights to non-Protestants in New England.
B. It was an attempt to maintain order in Boston after the passage of the Coercive Acts.
C. It was hoped to be useful in suppressing rebellions such as the one led by Nathaniel Bacon.
D. It protected Catholic rights in Maryland from the influx of Protestant colonists.
E. It improved the condition of indentured servants in the middle colonies.

19. James I of England strongly disliked the concept of Virginia’s House of Burgesses because
A. it was disrupted by political wrangling and did not accomplish its main duties.
B. it refused to send taxes to the British government.
C. he believed it sought to undermine his position as head of the church.
D. he believed that the idea of self-government was treasonous.
E. all of the above.

20.The New England Confederation
A. included all the New England colonies.
B. was an invitation-only association of Puritan colonies designed to improve colonial defense after the Pequot War.
C. made the New Englanders feel that their natural rights and “rights as Englishmen” were being stripped from them and led the American colonies to begin to seek independence from England.
D. was created by the English government to streamline its administration of the colonies and enforcement of the Navigation Laws.
E. was an economic and trade alliance meant to enable smuggling. during the era of salutary neglect.

Historians Review: Laurel Thatcher Ulrich

Dr. Laurel Thatcher Ulrich is a renowned women’s hsitorian who is often credited with coining one of my favorite sayings: “Well-behaved women seldom make history,” which is the name of one of her books published in 2007. She is currently a professor of history at Harvard University.

Her 1990 book, A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard based on her diary, 1785–1812, received numerous awards, including the Pulitzer Prize and the Bancroft Prize, and was turned into a documentary on PBS’s American Experience series. Dr. Ulrich served as president of the American Historical Association in 2009, and the DBQ for that year was on the concept of Republican motherhood, which will be mentioned in chapter 9.

Dr. Ulrich’s work is cited on p. 87.

Here is the online companion website to the PBS documentary based on A Midwife’s Tale:

Here is an online article by Dr. Ulrich, How Betsy Ross became famous:


Some extra questions to consider…

Might these help you understand the material as well as help you on the test? YES.

Who was Bartolomeo de las Casas, and what did he claim about Spanish colonization efforts that later became part of the Black Legend?

What did the headright system entail?

What did the Virginia Company originally hope to accomplish in the New World?

Why was the colony of Georgia founded?

What did Anne Hutchinson believe that got her into trouble with Massachusetts’ authorities?

How was New Netherland different from its neighboring colonies?

What were the causes of King Philip’s War, and what were the consequences?

Why, specifically, were Quakers unpopular in England?

How did Pennsylvania’s policies toward the Indians differ from the rest of the colonies in North America?

Who was William Bradford, and why was he important?

Who, exactly, were “the elect?” What were the practical effects of the belief in “predestination?”

What was the Act of Toleration, and how “tolerant” was it?

Although Africans were first brought to Jamestown in 1619, why weren’t they immediately preferred to indentured servants as the main source of labor?

What were the differences between the New England Confederation and the Dominion of New England?

What was meant by “salutary neglect,” specifically?

What was the most populous colony in the American colonies by 1700?

What did Sir Edmond Andros do to attempt to reassert the power of the English king?

Why did the English colonists’ relations with the Powhatans eventually sour?

What were two major exports of the Carolinas early in the settlement period?

What role did John Smith play in the founding of Jamestown?

What was the purpose of the Connecticut Blue Laws?

What impact did the Barbados slave codes have upon the American colonies, particularly in the South?

In what ways were the Crusaders indirectly responsible for the discovery of the New World?

What were the differences between families in the Chesapeake area versus families in New England?