Archive for the ‘Chapt. 7’ Category

Review of chapters on the late colonial period

The competition with the French, the drive for settlement beyond the Appalachians, and struggles with the British.

MC practice 7

1. In 1763, a definite shift occurred in British-colonial relations when _________ assumed control of colonial policy.                      (129,d)
A. Charles Townsend
B. Lord North
C. George Grenville
D. William Pitt
E. King George III

2. Under mercantilist doctrine, British currency policies enforced in the colonies were intended to primarily benefit            (128,d)
A. backwoods farmers.
B. British merchants.
C. Virginia tobacco planters.
D. the British Crown.
E. New England merchants.

3. The Navigation Acts, as written, aroused colonial resentment because they  (128,d)
A. prevented the colonists from developing a mature, self-sustaining economy.
B. forced the South to adopt a single crop as the basis for their economy.
C. favored the northern colonies at the expense of the southern colonies.
D. forced the American colonists to engage in economic activity which was not profitable.
E. all of the above.

4. The “radical whigs” were most opposed to, and feared,           (127)
A. republicanism
B. a written constitution
C. a too powerful parliament
D. too much democracy
E. the arbitrary power of the monarchy

5. The British Crown’s (officially the King, but actually often the Prime Minister acting on the King’s behalf) right to use the royal veto over colonial legislation        (128)
A. was opposed by many members of the British Parliament.
B. prohibited colonists from participating in the Atlantic slave trade.
C. was used sparingly by the British government.
D. was used frequently to overturn laws passed in colonial assemblies.
E. was what finally provoked the War of Independence.

6. The first Navigation Laws were specifically designed to          (128, b)
A. encourage the American colonies to experiment with growing new crops.
B. enable the colonists to maximize the profits they could earn through the sale of their trade goods.
C. foster a colonial economy that could offer healthy competition with Britain’s economy.
D. eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade.
E. support the mapping of Atlantic trade routes.

7. Before 1763, the Navigation Laws          (128, d,b)
A.  were loosely or rarely enforced in the American colonies.
B. were stringently enforced in Britain’s Indian colonies.
C. were aggressively enforced in the American colonies.
D. were more detrimental to the British mainland rather than the colonies.
E. were effective at putting American smugglers out of business.

8. The first law ever passed by Parliament  for raising tax revenues in the colonies was       (129,d)
A. Stamp Act
B. Townshend Act
C. Quartering Act
D. Declaratory Act
E. Sugar Act

9. All of these were benefits Americans gained from mercantilism before 1763 EXCEPT     (128, d)
A. the protection of the greatest navy and army in the world without any cost to the colonists.
B.  Americans were allowed to trade freely with other countries on the open market.
C. some British merchants were not allowed to compete with Colonial merchants, giving the Americans a virtual monopoly.
D. Virginia tobacco planters enjoyed a monopoly of the British market.
E. London paid high prices for ship parts made by colonial shipbuilders.

10. Mercantilists believed that        (127,d)
A. power came from a small but concentrated colonial empire.
B. the mother country produced raw materials and the colonies produced the finished good.
C. a mother country needed to import more than export.
D. a country’s power was determined by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury.
E. colonies were a drain on the mother country and should be curtailed.

Study questions for 5-7 Test

These certainly aren’t the only things that may show up, but you should take some time to make sure you know the answers to these questions. Review your class notes as well. Make sure you have read the blog posts, and use the links for more info page if you need help!

What was the most effective method the colonists had to fight British economic policies toward the colonies?
Explain Christine Heyrman’s main point in her discussion of the 1st Great Awakening.
Why was there a massacre at Deerfield?
What exactly was the “triangular trade?”
Explain the concept of “virtual representation.”
Why were “Continentals” worthless? (insert jokes about suicide doors here, for those of you who are car fans….)
What were the main features of the 1st Great Awakening?
How did slavery affect the distribution of wealth in southern society?
What was the purpose of the Committees of Correspondence?
Compare the way American society was structured in relation to that in Europe?
What was the purpose of the Stamp Act, and why was it so resented?
Why did the colonists and the British differ so much on their understanding of the conduct and meaning of the French and Indian War?
Why did wives sometimes run away from their husbands in early colonial America, and how did their husbands respond?
Why did colonists so resent the issuance of the Proclamation of 1763? What was the reason why the British issued this proclamation?
What happened to the Puritan Church in the 18th century?
What was the reason for Americans’ attitudes toward the Navigation Laws?
What was the principle at stake in the Zenger case, and what was the outcome?
What were the reasons for the development of “benign” or “salutary neglect” and why did this period end?
Describe the Albany Plan of Union, and explain the difficulties that made its enactment unlikely.
What was the significance of General Braddock’s defeat at Fort Duquesne?
Why did France want to gain control of the Ohio Valley, according to both our discussion and your text?
Which professions were least and most respected in 19th century America, and why?
What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1763?
What does “established church” mean and why was this practice criticized? By whom?
Describe the main points of the theory of mercantilism.
What actions by the British helped to lead the colonies to rebel by 1775?
How did religious concerns lead to the founding of early American Colleges?
What were the responses of the colonies to the Stamp Act?
Why did the British want to try smugglers in admiralty courts?
Explain why the chart on p. 114 claims that there have been 9 world wars.
Why and in what context did the British Parliament pass the Declaratory Act?
Create a chart demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of each side at the start of the American Revolution.
What were the main points of contention between the Old Lights and the New Lights?
What was the purpose of the Molasses Act?
How did the Enlightenment influence the 1st Great Awakening?
Explain the reasons for the start of the French and Indian War.
Outline the successes and failures of early attempts at unity by the colonists until 1775. Be thorough.
What were the Suffolk Resolves?
What was the context as well as the main idea of the Declaration of Rights and Grievances?
Who were the Regulators, and what caused their actions?
What was the basic purpose of the Navigation Acts, and how did these laws relate to the theory of mercantilism?

The Regulator Movement: Johnston Riot Act of 1771

Johnston Riot Act of 1771

An Act for Preventing Tumultuous and Riotous Assemblies, and for the More Speedy and Effectually Punishing the Rioters, and for Restoring and Preserving the Public Peace of This Province.

Whereas of late many seditious riots and tumults have been in divers parts of this Province to the Disturbance of the Public Peace, the Obstruction of the Courts of Justice, and tending to subvert the Constitution, and the same yet continued and fomented by persons dissatisfied with his Majesty’s Government. And whereas it hath been doubted by some how far the Laws now in Force are sufficient to inflict Punishment adequate to such heinous Offenses.

Be it therefore enacted by the Governor, Council and Assembly, and by the Authority of the same, That if any persons, to the number of ten or more, be unlawfully, tumultuously and riotously assembled together, to the disturbance of the public peace, at any time after the first Day of February next, and being openly required or commanded by any one or more justices of the Peace or Sheriff to disperse themselves, and peaceably to depart themselves to their Habitations, shall, to the number of ten or more, notwithstanding such command or request made, remain or continue together by the space of one Hour after such Command or Request, that then continuing together to the number of ten or more, shall be adjudged Felons and shall suffer Death as in Case of Felony, and shall be utterly excluded from his or her clergy, if found guilty by verdict of a jury or shall confess the same, upon his or their arraignment, or will not answer directly to same, according to the Laws of this Province, or shall be mute or shall be outlawed, and in every such justice of the Peace and Sheriff within the limits of their respective jurisdiction, as hereby authorized and empowered, and required on Notice or knowledge of any such unlawful, riotous assembly to resort to the place where such unlawful riots and tumultuous assembly shall be, of Persons to the number of ten or more, and there to make, or cause to be made, such Request or Command.

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if such persons so unlawfully, riotously and tumultuously assembled, or ten or more of them, after such request or command made in manner aforesaid, shall continue together and not disperse themselves in one hour, then it shall be lawful to and for every justice of the Peace or Sheriff of the County where such Assembly shall be, and also to and for such Person or Persons as shall be commanded to be aiding and assisting to any such justice of the Peace or Sheriff, who are hereby authorized and empowered and required to command all His Majesty’s subjects of this Province of Age and Ability to be assisting to them therein to seize and apprehend such persons so unlawfully, and riotously and tumultuously continuing together after such Request or Command made aforesaid, and forthwith to carry the Persons so apprehended before one or more of His Majesty’s Justices of the peace of the County where such persons shall be apprehended in Order to their being proceeded against for such Offenses according to Law. And that if such persons so unlawfully and riotously and tumultuously assembled together, shall happen to be killed, maimed, wounded or hurt in the dispersing, seizing, or apprehending, or endeavoring to disperse, seize or apprehend them, by reason of their resistance, that in every such case, the justice of the Peace, Sheriff, or under sheriff, and all other persons being aiding or assisting to them or any of them, shall be free, discharged and indemnified, as well as the King, his Heirs and Successors, as against all and every other person and Persons of, for and concerning the killing, maiming or hurting any of such person or persons so unlawfully, riotously and tumultuously assembled.

And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that if any Persons to the Number of Ten or more, unlawfully, riotously and tumultuously assembled together to the disturbance of the Public Peace, shall unlawfully and with force at any time after the first Day of March next, during the sitting of any of the Courts of Judicature within the Province, and with the intention to obstruct or disturb the Proceedings of such Court, assault, beat or wound or openly threaten to assault, beat or wound any of the judges, Justices or other officers of such Court, during the continuance of the term, or shall assault, beat or wound or openly threaten to assault, beat or wound, shall unlawfully and with Force hinder or obstruct any Sheriff, Coroner, or Collector of the Public Taxes in the discharge or execution of his or their Offices, or shall unlawfully and with force demolish, pull down or destroy any church or Chapel or any building for religious worship or any Court House or Prison, or any Dwelling House, Barn, Stable or other House, that then every such offense shall be adjudged a Felony. And the Offenders therein, their Leaders, Abettors and Advisers, shall be Adjudged felons, and shall suffer death as in due case of Felony, and shall be utterly excluded from his or their clergy; and if found guilty by verdict of a jury, or shall confess the same upon his or their arraignment, or will not answer directly to the same, according to the laws of this Province, or shall stand mute or be outlawed.

And whereas it hath been found by experience that there is great difficulty in bringing to Justice those who have been or may be guilty of any of the offenses before mentioned: for remedy thereof, Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the Attorney-General of this Province for the time being, or his deputies, to commence prosecutions against any person or persons who may have at any time since the first Day of March last, or shall at any time hereafter commit or perpetrate any of the crimes herein before mentioned, in any superior Court within this Province, or in any Court of Oyer and Terminer, by the Governor or Commander-in-Chief for the time being, specially instituted and appointed, and the judges or justices of such Court, are hereby empowered and required to take cognizance of all such crimes and offenses, and proceed to give judgment and award execution thereon, although in a different County or District from that wherein the crime was committed, and that all proceedings thereupon shall be deemed equally valid and sufficient in law as if the same had been prosecuted in the County or District wherein the Offense was committed, any, Law, Usage or Custom to the Contrary notwithstanding.

And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the judges or Justices of such Court of Oyer and Terminer so commissioned shall direct the clerk of the District where such Court of Oyer and Terminer is to be held to issue Writs Venire Facias, and the proceedings thereon to be in all respects the same as directed by an act of the Assembly passed at New Bern in January of the year of our Lord, One Thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight, entitled An Act for dividing this Province into six several districts and for establishing a superior Court of Justice in each of the said districts and regulating the proceedings therein, and for providing adequate salaries for the Chief Justices and the associate Justices of the said superior Courts. Provided, nevertheless, that no Person or Persons heretofore guilty of any of the crimes or offenses in this Act before mentioned, altho’ convicted thereof in a different County or District from that wherein such Offense was committed, shall be subject to any or other or greater punishment than he or they would or might have been had this Act never been made.

And to the end that the justice of the Province be not eluded by the resistance or escape of such enormous Offenders, Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that from and after the passing of this act, if any Bill or Bills of indictment be found or presented or presentments made against any Person or Persons for any of the crimes or offenses herein before mentioned, it shall and may be lawful for the judges or Justices of the superior Court or Court of Oyer and Terminer, wherein such indictment shall be found or presentment made, and they are hereby empowered and required to issue their proclamation to be affixed or put up at the Court House and each Church or Chapel in the County where the crime was committed, commanding the Person or Persons against whom such bill of indictment is found or presentment made to surrender himself or themselves to the Sheriff of the County wherein such Court is to be held within sixty days. And in case such Person or Persons do not surrender himself or themselves accordingly, he or they shall be deemed guilty of the offense charged in the indictment found or presentment made in manner like as if he or they had been arraigned and convicted thereof by due course of Law; and it shall be lawful to or for any Person or Persons to kill or destroy such Offender or Offenders, and such Person or Persons killing such Offender or Offenders shall be free, discharged and indemnified, as well as against the KING, his heirs and Successors, as against all and every Person or Persons for and concerning the killing and destroying such Offender or Offenders, and the lands and Chattels of such Offender or Offenders shall be forfeited to His Majesty, his Heirs and Successors, to be sold by the Sheriff, for the best price that may be had, at Public venue, after notice by advertisement for ten days, and the Monies arising from such sale to be paid to the Treasurer of the District wherein the same shall be sold, and applied afterwards for defraying the contingent charges of the Government.

And whereas by the great Riots and insurrections at the last superior Court held for the district of Hillsborough it may be justly apprehended that some endeavors will be made to punish those who have been guilty of such Riots and Insurrections, as well as those who may hereafter be guilty of the crimes and Offenses herein before mentioned: For prevention thereof and restoring Peace and Stability to the Regular Government of this Province, Be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the Governor or Commander-in- Chief for the time being is hereby fully authorized and empowered to order to attend Regiments of Militia in this Province, to be under the command of such Officer or Officers as he may think proper to appoint for that purpose, at the Public Expense, to be by him employed in Aid and Assistance of the execution of this Law, as well as to protect the Sheriffs and Collectors of the Public Revenue in Discharge of their several duties, which draught or Detachments of Officers and Soldiers when made shall be found, provided for, and paid, in the same manner and at the same rates, and subject to the same rules and Discipline as directed in case of insurrection in and by Act of the Assembly made in the year One Thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight, entitled An Act for establishing a Militia in this Province.

And for effectually carrying into execution the purposes aforesaid, Be it further enacted by the authority, aforesaid, that it shall and may be lawful for the Governor and Commander-in-Chief for the time being to, draw upon either or both of the Public Treasurers of this Province, by warrant from under his hand and seal, for the payment of any such sums of Money as shall or may be immediately necessary for the carrying on and performing of such service, and the said Treasurers, or either of them, are hereby directed and required to answer and pay such warrants as aforesaid out of the contingent fund which shall be allowed in their settlement of the public Accounts.

And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that if any number of men shall be found embodied and in an armed and hostile manner, to withstand or oppose any Military Forces, raised in Virtue of this Act, and shall, when openly and publicly required, commanded by any justice of the peace or Sheriff of the County where the same shall happen, to lay down their arms and surrender themselves, that then and in such case the said Persons so unlawfully assembled and withstanding, opposing and resisting, shall be considered as traitors, and may be treated accordingly.

And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the Justices of every Inferior Court shall cause this Act to be read at the Court House Door, the second Day of each Court for their Counties, and that the Minister, Clerk or Reader of every Parish in this Province shall read or cause to be read at every Church, Chapel or other place of public Worship within their respective parishes, once in every three months at least, immediately after, divine service, during the continuance of this Act.

And be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, that this Act shall continue and be in force for one year, and no longer. Read three times in Open Assembly and Ratified the 15th Day of January, 1771. WILLIAM TRYON, Governor. JAMES HASSELL, President. RICHARD CASWELL, Speaker. A true Copy of an Act passed last session of the Assembly. ROBERT PALMER, Secretary (Col. Rec. of N. C., Vol. VIII, PP. 481 to 486)

Information on the Navigation Act

Go here:

The Suffolk Resolves

Representatives from around Suffolk County, MA, met at Doty Tavern– always a good idea as a locale when one is discussing politics– and apparently adopted this statement on August 16, 1774.

These resolutions in response to the Intolerable Acts were later adopted by the First Continental Congress on September 17 as an official colonial response to the increasingly harsh actions of British crown officials to the unrest in the colonies.

Here is a cool little link about the tavern in which the Suffolk Resolves were first drafted. Watch out for the pipe music, though.

The Suffolk Resolves

recorded by Dr. Joseph Warren

At a meeting of the delegates of every town & district in the county of Suffolk, on Tuesday the 6th of September, at the house of Mr. Richard Woodward, of Deadham, and by adjournment, at the house of Mr. [Daniel] Vose, of Milton, on Friday the 9th instant, Joseph Palmer, esq. being chosen moderator, and William Thompson, esquire, clerk, a committee was chosen to bring in a report to the convention, and the following being several times read, and put paragraph by paragraph, was unanimously voted, viz.

Whereas the power but not the justice, the vengeance but not the wisdom of Great-Britain, which of old persecuted, scourged, and exiled our fugitive parents from their native shores, now pursues us, their guiltless children, with unrelenting severity: And whereas, this, then savage and uncultivated desart, was purchased by the toil and treasure, or acquired by the blood and valor of those our venerable progenitors; to us they bequeathed the dearbought inheritance, to our care and protection they consigned it, and the most sacred obligations are upon us to transmit the glorious purchase, unfettered by power, unclogged with shackles, to our innocent and beloved offspring. On the fortitude, on the wisdom and on the exertions of this important day, is suspended the fate of this new world, and of unborn millions. If a boundless extent of continent, swarming with millions, will tamely submit to live, move and have their being at the arbitrary will of a licentious minister, they basely yield to voluntary slavery, and future generations shall load their memories with incessant execrations.–On the other hand, if we arrest the hand which would ransack our pockets, if we disarm the parricide which points the dagger to our bosoms, if we nobly defeat that fatal edict which proclaims a power to frame laws for us in all cases whatsoever, thereby entailing the endless and numberless curses of slavery upon us, our heirs and their heirs forever; if we successfully resist that unparalleled usurpation of unconstitutional power, whereby our capital is robbed of the means of life; whereby the streets of Boston are thronged with military executioners; whereby our coasts are lined and harbours crouded with ships of war; whereby the charter of the colony, that sacred barrier against the encroachments of tyranny, is mutilated and, in effect, annihilated; whereby a murderous law is framed to shelter villains from the hands of justice; whereby the unalienable and inestimable inheritance, which we derived from nature, the constitution of Britain, and the privileges warranted to us in the charter of the province, is totally wrecked, annulled, and vacated, posterity will acknowledge that virtue which preserved them free and happy; and while we enjoy the rewards and blessings of the faithful, the torrent of panegyrists will roll our reputations to that latest period, when the streams of time shall be absorbed in the abyss of eternity.–Therefore, we have resolved, and do resolve,

1. That whereas his majesty, George the Third, is the rightful successor to the throne of Great-Britain, and justly entitled to the allegiance of the British realm, and agreeable to compact, of the English colonies in America–therefore, we, the heirs and successors of the first planters of this colony, do cheerfully acknowledge the said George the Third to be our rightful sovereign, and that said covenant is the tenure and claim on which are founded our allegiance and submission.
2. That it is an indispensable duty which we owe to God, our country, ourselves and posterity, by all lawful ways and means in our power to maintain, defend and preserve those civil and religious rights and liberties, for which many of our fathers fought, bled and died, and to hand them down entire to future generations.
3. That the late acts of the British parliament for blocking up the harbour of Boston, for altering the established form of government in this colony, and for screening the most flagitious violators of the laws of the province from a legal trial, are gross infractions of those rights to which we are justly entitled by the lasws laws of nature, the British constitution, and the charter of the province.
4. That no obedience is due from this province to either or any part of the acts above-mentioned, but that they be rejected as the attempts of a wicked administration to enslave America.
5. That so long as the justices of our superior court of judicature, court of assize, &c. and inferior court of common pleas in this county are appointed, or hold their places, by any other tenure than that which the charter and the laws of the province direct, they must be considered as under undue influence, and are therefore unconstitutional officers, and, as such, no regard ought to be paid to them by the people of this county.
6. That if the justices of the superior court of judicature, assize, &c. justices of the court of common pleas, or of the general sessions of the peace, shall sit and act during their present disqualified state, this county will support, and bear harmless, all sheriffs and their deputies, constables, jurors and other officers who shall refuse to carry into execution the orders of said courts; and, as far as possible, to prevent the many inconveniencies which must be occasioned by a suspension of the courts of justice, we do most earnestly recommend it to all creditors, that they shew all reasonable and even generous forbearance to their debtors; and to all debtors, to pay their just debts with all possible speed, and if any disputes relative to debts or trespasses shall arise, which cannot be settled by the parties, we recommend it to them to submit all such causes to arbitration; and it is our opinion that the contending parties or either of them, who shall refuse so to do, onght to be considered as co-operating with the enemies of this country.
7. That it be recommended to the collectors of taxes, constables and all other officers, who have public monies in their hands, to retain the same, and not to make any payment thereof to the provincial county treasurer until the civil government of the province is placed upon a constitutional foundation, or until it shall otherwise be ordered by the proposed provincial Congress.
8. That the persons who have accepted seats at the council board, by virtue of a mandamus from the King, in conformity to the late act of the British parliament, entitled, an act for the regulating the government of the Massachusetts-Bay, have acted in direct violation of the duty they owe to their country, and have thereby given great and just offence to this people; therefore, resolved, that this county do recommend it to all persons, who have so highly offended by accepting said departments, and have not already publicly resigned their seats at the council board, to make public resignations of their places at said board, on or before the 20th day of this instant, September; and that all persons refusing so to do, shall, from and after said day, be considered by this county as obstinate and incorrigible enemies to this country.
9. That the fortifications begun and now carrying on upon Boston Neck, are justly alarming to this county, and gives us reason to apprehend some hostile intention against that town, more especially as the commander in chief has, in a very extraordinary manner, removed the powder from the magazine at Charlestown, and has also forhidden the keeper of the magazine at Boston, to deliver out to the owners, the powder, which they had lodged in said magazine.
10. That the late act of parliament for establishing the Roman Catholic religion and the French laws in that extensive country, now called Canada, is dangerous in an extreme degree to the Protestant religion and to the civil rights and liberties of all America; and, therefore, as men and Protestant Christians, we are indispensubly obliged to take all proper measures for our security.
11. That whereas our enemies have flattered themselves that they shall make an easy prey of this numerous, brave and hardy people, from an apprehension that they are unacquainted with military discipline; we, therefore, for the honour, defence and security of this county and province, advise, as it has been recommended to take away all commissions from the officers of the militia, that those who now hold commissions, or such other persons, be elected in each town as officers in the militia, as shall be judged of sufficient capacity for that purpose, and who have evidenced themselves the inflexible friends to the rights of the people; and that the inhabitants of those towns and districts, who are qualified, do use their utmost diligence to acquaint themselves with the art of war as soon as possible, and do, for that purpose, appear under arms at least once every week.
12. That during the present hostile appearances on the part of Great-Britain, notwithstanding the many insults and oppressions which we most sensibly resent, yet, nevertheless, from our affection to his majesty, which we have at all times evidenced, we are determined to act merely upon the defensive, so long as such conduct may be vindicated by reason and the principles of self-preservation, but no longer.
13. That, as we understand it has been in contemplation to apprehend sundry persons of this county, who have rendered themselves conspicuous in contending for the violated rights and liberties of their countrymen; we do recommend, should such an audacious measure be put in practice, to seize and keep in safe custody, every servant of the present tyrannical and unconstitutional government throughout the county and province, until the persons so apprehended be liberated from the bands of our adversaries, and restored safe and uninjured to their respective friends and families.
14. That until our rights are fully restored to us, we will, to the utmost of our power, and we recommend the same to the other counties, to withhold all commercial intercourse with Great-Britain, Ireland, and the West-Indies, and abstain from the consumption of British merchandise and manufactures, and especially of East-Indies, and piece goods, with such additions, alterations, and exceptions only, as the General Congress of the colonies may agree to.
15. That under our present circumstances, it is incumbent on us to encourage arts and manufactures amongst us, by all means in our power, and that be and are hereby appointed a committee, to consider of the best ways and means to promote and establish the same, and to report to this convention as soon as may be.
16. That the exigencies of our public affairs, demand that a provincial Congress be called to consult such measures as may be adopted, and vigorously executed by the whole people; and we do recommend it to the several towns in this county, to chuse members for such a provincial Congress, to be holden at Concord, on the second Tuesday of October, next ensuing.
17. That this county, confiding in the wisdom and integrity of the continental Congress, now sitting at Philadelphia , pay all due respect and submission to such measures as may be recommended by them to the colonies, for the restoration and establishment of our just rights, civil and religious, and for renewing that harmony and union between Great-Britain and the colonies, so earnestly wished for by all good men.
18. That whereas the universal uneasiness which prevails among all orders of men, arising from the wicked and oppressive measures of the present administration, may influence some unthinking persons to commit outrage upon private property; we would heartily recommend to all persons of this community, not to engage in any routs, riots, or licentious attacks upon the properties of any person whatsoever, as being subversive of all order and government; but, by a steady, manly, uniform, and persevering opposition, to convince our enemies, that in a contest so important, in a cause so solemn, our conduct shall be such as to merit the approbation of the wise, and the admiration of the brave and free of every age and of every country.
19. That should our enemies, by any sudden manoeuvres, render it necessary to ask the aid and assistance of our brethren in the country, some one of the committee of correspondence, or a select man of such town, or the town adjoining, where such hostilities shall commence, or shall be expected to commence, shall despatch couriers with written messages to the select men, or committees of correspondence, of the several towns in the vicinity, with a written account of such matter, who shall despatch others to committees more remote, until proper and sufficient assistance be obtained, and that the expense of said couriers be defrayed by the county, until it shall be otherwise ordered by the provincial Congress.

Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress

As you read each item, ask yourself to what specifically each resolution is referring. This will help you study for your exam. For instance, item I acknowledges that the colonists owe loyalty and obedience to the Crown, and item II reiterated that the colonists consider themselves entitled to the “rights of Englishmen.”

Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress
October 19, 1765

The members of this Congress, sincerely devoted, with the warmest sentiments of affection and duty to His Majesty’s Person and Government, inviolably attached to the present happy establishment of the Protestant succession, and with minds deeply impressed by a sense of the present and impending misfortunes of the British colonies on this continent; having considered as maturely as time will permit the circumstances of the said colonies, esteem it our indispensable duty to make the following declarations of our humble opinion, respecting the most essential rights and liberties Of the colonists, and of the grievances under
which they labour, by reason of several late Acts of Parliament.

I. That His Majesty’s subjects in these colonies, owe the same allegiance to the Crown of Great-Britain, that is owing from his subjects born within the realm, and all due subordination to that august body the Parliament of Great Britain.

II. That His Majesty’s liege subjects in these colonies, are entitled to all the inherent rights and liberties of his natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great-Britain.

III. That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted right of Englishmen, that no taxes be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives.

IV. That the people of these colonies are not, and from their local circumstances cannot be, represented in the House of Commons in Great-Britain.

V. That the only representatives of the people of these colonies, are persons chosen therein by themselves, and that no taxes ever have been, or can be constitutionally imposed on them, but by their respective legislatures.

VI. That all supplies to the Crown, being free gifts of the people, it is unreasonable and inconsistent with the principles and spirit of the British Constitution, for the people of Great-Britain to grant to His Majesty the property of the colonists.

VII. That trial by jury is the inherent and invaluable right of every British subject in these colonies.

VIII.  That the late Act of Parliament, entitled, An Act for granting and applying certain Stamp Duties, and other Duties, in the British colonies and plantations in America, etc., by imposing taxes on the inhabitants of these colonies, and the said Act, and several other Acts, by extending the jurisdiction of the courts of Admiralty beyond its ancient limits, have a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonists.

IX. That the duties imposed by several late Acts of Parliament, from the peculiar circumstances of these colonies, will be extremely burthensome and grievous; and from the scarcity of specie, the payment of them absolutely impracticable.

X. That as the profits of the trade of these colonies ultimately center in Great-Britain, to pay for the manufactures which they are obliged to take from thence, they eventually contribute very largely to all supplies granted there to the Crown.

XI. That the restrictions imposed by several late Acts of Parliament, on the trade of these colonies, will render them unable to purchase the manufactures of Great-Britain.

XII. That the increase, prosperity, and happiness of these colonies, depend on the full and free enjoyment of their rights and liberties, and an intercourse with Great-Britain mutually affectionate and advantageous.

XIII. That it is the right of the British subjects in these colonies, to petition the King, Or either House of Parliament.

Lastly, That it is the indispensable duty of these colonies, to the best of sovereigns, to the mother country, and to themselves, to endeavour by a loyal and dutiful address to his Majesty, and humble applications to both Houses of Parliament, to procure the repeal of the Act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses of any other Acts of Parliament, whereby the jurisdiction of the Admiralty is extended as aforesaid, and of the other late Acts for the restriction of American commerce.

Chapter 7 questions

Due MONDAY September 9.

Handwritten, and written to demonstrate analysis and depth of reasoning. Remember, this is also writing practice.


1. How and why did the British victory in the French and Indian War change the expectations between the British and colonists? What factors led the colonists to be shocked by this change in British attitudes?

2. What did “republicans” in the 18th century believe about government as well as the requirements for a just, stable society? What did they consider to be examples of just societies, and why? What did “Radical whigs” fear, and how were they different from “republicans?”


3. How did the appointment of George Grenville initiate a new relationship between Britain and her colonies?

4. Chart each major law, what its purpose was, and what the colonial protest method was in response to each: Stamp Act, Sugar Act, Declaratory Act, Townshend Acts.

5. Why did the colonists interpret these laws as threats? Why specifically did colonists reject the Stamp Act on principle? How did the British answer colonial objections?

6. Which laws were repealed, and how did the colonists achieve this, given their lack of representation in Parliament?

7. What 4-5 specific actions were taken by the colonists that helped unite them in their protests against the Stamp Act?

8. How did the British respond to colonial protests against the Townshend Acts? Why did the colonists seem to take the Townshend Acts less seriously than the Stamp Act (and do you think that was exactly the British plan all along?)?

9. Why did the Boston Massacre occur?

10. Why did the British repeal the Townshend Acts? Why was the tea tax retained from the Townshend Acts?

11. Why, specifically, didn’t the situation calm down after Lord North backed down on them? How did the system of colonial communication and propaganda work?

12. What was the purpose of the Tea Act of 1773 (it’s not named as such in your text, but it’s described on p. 135 under “Tea Brewing in Boston”)? Describe the protests in various coastal cities, culminating with Boston?

13. What were the specific laws passed by the British in response to the Tea Party in Boston? What were these called by the British, and what did the Americans call them? What role did the Quebec Act play in this?

14.What responses did the colonists take to these laws, especially those that were meant to improve unified response by the colonists?

15. What actions did the First Continental Congress take? Include dates where possible.

16. How did Parliament respond to the petitions from the Continental Congress?

17. Create a chart showing the relative strengths and weaknesses of the British vis-à-vis the impending War for Independence with the colonies.

18. Create a chart showing the relative strengths and weaknesses of the colonies vis-à-vis the impending War for Independence with the British.

Was the American Revolution Inevitable?

Here’s what the BBC thinks (fun to have it from a British perspective…)

Review MC 2 for semester 1 final

Please print these off, answer them, and bring them with you to class on Thursday/Friday (December 8/9).

These questions are over chapters 5-8. First attempt to see how many of the answers you know without looking them up. Make a mark next to those you felt confident about. After we go over these in class, you will know areas you need to concentrate upon when studying.

1. Which of the following explorers claimed the Louisiana Territory for France?
A. Louis Joliet
B. Jacques Cartier
C. Robert de la Salle
D. Samuel de Champlain
E. Jacques Marquette

2. In what way did early Spanish settlement differ from that of the early French colonization efforts during the 17th century?
A. The French focused on establishing larger permanent communities in their colonies.
B. The Spanish made religious conversion a major focus of their efforts.
C. The French focused more on forced religious conversions of the indigenous peoples than did the Spanish.
D. The French based much of their hopes of profit on the fur trade.
E. French settlement was driven largely by the desires of French Huguenots to escape religious persecution, while the Spanish had no such dissident settler groups.

3. The colonial policy of the British Empire was reorganized in 1763 because King George III and his Parliament desperately needed to raise funds to pay for the previous four world wars. The means to raise funds that was settled upon was
A. fighting a series of Indian engagements to strip more land from the Natives, which could then be sold for revenue.
B. to create the Dominion of New England in order to streamline colonial administration.
C. to place direct and indirect taxes upon the colonists and to increase enforcement of the Navigation Acts to end smuggling.
D. to permanently ban any further spread of English settlements west of the Mississippi River.
E. impressing American sailors into the British navy.

4. Salutary neglect
A. described the period of British inattention to colonial matters before the French and Indian War.
B. led to lax enforcement of the Navigation Laws.
C. ended after the Peace of Paris in 1763.
D. allowed American colonists to get by with paying very little taxes.
E. all of the above.

5. The “triangular trade” involved the sale of rum, molasses, and slaves among
A. New England, Africa, and the West Indies.
B. West Indies, France, and South America.
C. New England, Britain, and Spain.
D. Virginia, Canada, and Britain.
E. New England, the Carolinas, and West Indies.

6. In 1754, this meeting was held by representatives of 7 colonies to attempt to encourage colonial unity against the threat against the colonial frontier stirred up by the French through their Indian allies.
A. New England Confederation
B. Albany Congress
C. Stamp Act Congress
D. First Continental Congress
E. House of Burgesses

7. The first direct tax placed upon the colonies by Parliament (causing the colonists to react with fury) was
A. the Stamp Act.
B. the Molasses Act.
C. the Quartering Act.
D. the Townshend Acts.
E. the Tea Act tax.

8. The most effective protest against British policies, which actually resulted in Parliament reversing many hated provisions they had enacted was
A. physical intimidation of royal officials, such as tarring and feathering or burning them in effigy.
B. vandalism such as the Boston Tea Party.
C. sending petitions for the redress of grievances to Parliament.
D. smuggling to avoid the payment of customs duties.
E. boycotts of British goods through coordinated efforts by the Sons and Daughters of Liberty.

9. The riches created by the growing slave population in the American South in the 18th century
A. were distributed evenly among the Southern whites.
B. helped to narrow the gap between rich and poor, creating an egalitarian society for whites.
C. created a serious problem with inflation, as too much wealth was invested in slave property.
D. benefited only a few elite families at the expense of the rest of Southern society.
E. enabled poor whites to escape tenant farming

10. By 1775, the ___ were the only two established churches in colonial America.
A. Methodist and Anglican
B. Presbyterian and Congregational
C. Congregational and Anglican
D. Quaker and Catholic
E. Presbyterian and Anglican

11. When the British Parliament passed the Molasses Act of 1733, it intended the act to
A. stimulate the colonies’ “triangular trade.”
B. satisfy colonial demands for earning foreign currency.
C. discourage colonial trade with the French West Indies.
D. increase colonial standards of living and protect the livelihood of colonial merchants.
E. require Americans to sell their molasses to British merchants.

12. The local committees of correspondence organized by Samuel Adams
A. promoted his bid to become governor of Massachusetts.
B. promoted independent action in each colony to support the British.
C. kept opposition to the British alive through the exchange of propaganda.
D. served as a precursor to the US Postal Service.
E. led to the Boston Massacre.

13. The reason France needed to control the Ohio Valley in the 1750s was to
A. stop Spain from extending its empire.
B. help win the War of Jenkins’ Ear.
C. stop the Indian attacks on its outposts.
D. link its Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley.
E. be able to put more of its settlers there in order to increase farm production.

14. With the British and American victory in the French and Indian War,
A. the American colonies grew closer to Britain.
B. Americans now feared the Spanish, who surrounded them on two sides.
C. a new spirit of independence arose among the colonists with France eliminated as a threat.
D. the Native Americans were all placed on reservations as a penalty for taking the losing side.
E. the French withdrew completely from the Western hemisphere.

15. “Virtual representation” meant that
A. almost all British subjects were represented in Parliament.
B. every member of Parliament represented all British subjects.
C. colonists could elect their own representatives to Parliament.
D. Parliament could pass virtually all types of legislation except taxes.
E. each member of Parliament represented only people in his home district.

16. Under mercantilist theory, the colonies were expected to do all of the following EXCEPT
A. supply Britain with raw materials.
B. become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible.
C. furnish ships, seamen, and trade to strengthen the British Navy.
D. provide a market for British goods.
E. refrain from exporting woolen cloth.

17. Thomas Paine argued that all government officials
A. were corrupt.
B. should derive their authority from popular consent.
C. should be part of the “natural aristocracy.”
D. need not listen to the voice of the uneducated.
E. should not be paid for their service.

18. The terms of the Peace of Paris of 1783 were incredibly generous to the Americans because
A. England was trying to convince the Americans to abandon their alliance with France.
B. the British were trying to anger the French Canadians, who still felt loyalty to France.
C. the British were trying to persuade the Americans not to punish Loyalists who remained in America.
D. the British feared losing their Latin American colonies to Spain.
E. the Americans had soundly defeated the British and driven out all of its troops after Yorktown.

19. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about when the 2nd Continental Congress convened?
A. delegates attended from all thirteen colonies.
B. the strongest sentiment was for declaring independence from England.
C. it adopted measures to raise money and create an army and navy.
D. it drafted new written appeals to the king.
E. the conservatives remained a strong force.

20. One reason that the American Revolution avoided the excesses of the French Revolution is that
A. America declared martial law until the Constitution was enacted in 1789.
B. the American Revolution suddenly overturned the entire political framework.
C. a strong sense of class consciousness already existed.
D. political democracy preceded social democracy in the US
E. cheap land was easily available.