Archive for the ‘Chapter 16’ Category

Practice Questions Chapters 14-16

1. By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” located in the
A. border states of Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland.
B. Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
C. old South states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.
D. new Southwest states of Texas, Arkansas, and Indian Territory.
E. mountain regions of Tennessee, West Virginia, and Kentucky.

2. In the 1790s a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the
A. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
B. National (Cumberland Road)
C. Erie Canal.
D. St Lawrence Seaway.
E. Lancaster Turnpike.

3. This innovation in corporate law encouraged investment and protected investors from huge losses.
A. limited liability
B. patent law
C. Marbury v. Madison
D. windfall profits taxes
E. habeas corpus

4. This women’s rights activist also was involved heavily in the abolition movement, due to her Quaker faith.
A. Harriet Tubman
B. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
C. Emily Dickinson
D. Lucretia Mott
E. Mary Lyon

5. Ralph Waldo Emerson’s “intellectual declaration of independence” was his
A. “The American Scholar” address at Harvard in 1837.
B. “On the Duty of Civil Disobedience” essay in 1849.
C. “Self-Reliance” essay in 1830
D. “Nature” essay in 1836.
E. “Leaves of Grass” poetry collection in 1855.

6. The wearing of pants by women was suggested by the fashions of
A. Katharine Hepburn D. Louisa May Alcott
B. the Shakers E. Carrie Chapman Catt
C. Amelia Bloomer

7. During the first hours of Nat Turner’s Rebellion, how were the first victims killed?
A. they were whipped to death
B. they were killed with hatchets and axes
C. they were lined up and shot
D. they were suffocated
E. their houses were set on fire

8. The American work force in the early 19th century was characterized by
A. substantial employment of women and children in factories.
B. reliance on the system of apprentices and masters.
C. a general lengthening of the workday from ten to fourteen hours.
D. extensive political activity among workers.
E. strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective.

9. All of these were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy EXCEPT
A. can a democratic government still support slavery?
B. should the government regulate monopolies?
C. who should own the new transportation network?
D. who should own these new technologies?
E. how tightly should patents protect inventions?

10. In general, ____ tended to bind the West and South together, while _____ and _____ connected West to East.
A. turnpikes, steamboats, canals
B. railroads, canals, steamboats
C. turnpikes, railroads, steamboats
D. canals, steamboats, turnpikes
E. steamboats, canals, railroads

11. According to Harriet Jacobs, in the wake of Nat Turner’s Rebellion,
A. the Underground Railroad was created.
B. gangs of poor whites looted blacks of their property.
C. many slaves ran off to live with Indians.
D. plantation owners began forbidding their slaves to attend church.
E. other slaves were hanged when Nat Turner could not be captured.

12. The case of Commonwealth v. Hunt was a notable exception to the legal understanding of workers’ rights in the early 19th century, since the decision stated that
A. women had to be paid as much as men for the same work.
B. workers should not be forced to work more than 10 hours in a day.
C. children could not be employed in factories.
D. unions were not illegal conspiracies so long as they were peaceful.
E. use of strikebreakers was illegal.

13. “Unjust laws exist: shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?” Who said it?
A. Joseph Smith
B. John H. Noyes
C. Louisa May Alcott
D. Henry David Thoreau
E. James Madison

14. Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant were members of the
A. Knickerbocker group
B. Transcendentalists
C. Mormons
D. Christian Scientists
E. Hudson River School

15. Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the 2nd Great Awakening because
A. they saw churches as the first institutions that needed to be reformed.
B. they refused to accept the idea that there was a special female role in society.
C. they were looking to obtain as much power as possible at the expense of men.
D. many of the leading preachers and evangelists were women.
E. religious social reform legitimized their activity outside the home.

16. This Alton, Illinois publisher and Presbyterian minister, was killed by a mob in 1837 for his activity on behalf of abolitionism.
A. Lewis Tappan
B. Lyman Beecher
C. William Wilberforce
D. Elijah Lovejoy
E. Wendell Phillips

17. John Quincy Adams waged an eight-year fight for repeal of
A. the Missouri Compromise’s allowance of slavery south of the 36° 30′ line.
B. the decision sending the Amistad mutineers back into slavery.
C. the Gag Rule in the House of Representatives that forbade the discussion of anti-slavery petitions.
D. the Three-Fifths Compromise.
E. the Black Codes of South Carolina.

Depiction of the Middle Passage from Amistad

Shocking. From the movie Amistad.

Test review chapters 14-16

1. By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” located in the
A. border states of Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland.
B. mountain regions of Tennessee, West Virginia, and Kentucky.
C. old South states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.
D. new Southwest states of Texas, Arkansas, and Indian Territory.
E. Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

2. Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in 19th century America because
A. the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles.
B. men were regarded as morally superior beings.
C. it was the duty of men to teach the young to be good, productive citizens.
D. frontier life necessitated these distinctions.
E. women believed this emphasis brought them greater respect.

3. By 1860, the value of slaves in the South was
A. two billion dollars.
B. five billion dollars.
C. one billion dollars.
D. 200 million dollars.
E. 500 million dollars.

4. The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to
A. the supporters of Andrew Jackson.
B. people opposed to the growing power of evangelical Protestants.
C. those who wished to keep the government from meddling in social and economic life.
D. American suspicions of secret societies.
E. supporters of the American System.

5. During the first hours of Nat Turner’s Rebellion, how were the first victims killed?
A. they were killed with hatchets and axes
B.  they were suffocated
C. they were lined up and shot
D. they were whipped to death
E. their houses were set on fire

6. Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the 2nd Great Awakening because
A. they were looking to obtain as much power as possible at the expense of men.
B. they refused to accept the idea that there was a special female role in society.
C. religious social reform legitimized their activity outside the home.
D. many of the leading preachers and evangelists were women.
E. they saw churches as the first institutions that needed to be reformed.

7. In general, ____ tended to bind the West and South together, while _____ and _____ connected West to East.
A. canals, steamboats, turnpikes
B. railroads, canals, steamboats
C. steamboats, canals, railroads
D. turnpikes, steamboats, canals
E. turnpikes, railroads, steamboats

8. Nauvoo, Illinois
A. was the site of a new factory dedicated to creating interchangeable parts.
B. was the home of Lane Theological Seminary.
C. was the site of a great anti-slavery riot in which a printer and
minister was killed.
D. was the site of the first women’s college in the US.
E. was where Brigham Young was elected to replace Joseph Smith

9. Slaves fought the system of slavery in all of the following ways EXCEPT
A. slowing down the work pace.
B. sabotaging expensive equipment.
C. refusing to get an education.
D. running away if possible.
E. stealing goods their labor had produced.

10. The basis for modern mass production was the
A. cotton gin.
B. use of interchangeable parts.
C. creation of the mechanized assembly line.
D. principle of limited liability.
E. musket.

11. Most white southerners were
A. industrialists.
B. subsistence farmers.
C. plantation owners.
D. small farmers with a few slaves.
E. mountain whites.

12. All of these were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy EXCEPT
A. how tightly should patents protect inventions?
B. who should own the new transportation network?
C. can a democratic government still support slavery?
D. who should own these new technologies?
E. should the government regulate monopolies?

13. This semi- secret Irish organization helped Irish immigrants in America.
A. The Know-Nothings
B. The Molly Maguires
C. the Veiled Prophets
D. The Ancient Order of Hibernians
E. Sinn Fein

14. Which group would be least likely to support prohibition laws?
A. women
B. Protestant ministers
C. Temperance groups
D. Mormons
E. Roman Catholics

15. Transcendentalism was inspired by what simultaneous overseas movement?
A. Realism
B. the Enlightenment
C. the Renaissance
D. Romanticism
E. Abstract Expressionism

16. Which of these was NOT one of the “canal consequences?”
A. Many New England farmers had to give up farming and find other livelihoods, such as factory work.
B. Farmland in the Great Lakes area became much more profitable to farm.
C. Syracuse and Rochester in western New York experienced rapid growth.
D. The construction of railroads in New York and the Old Northwest was abandoned since canals were cheaper.
E. Chicago, Detroit and other cities of the Old Northwest became significant economic centers.

John Quincy Adams and Slavery: from the Gag resolution to the Amistad

John Quincy Adams, while president, did not publicly advocate abolitionism. However, after his term in office, he was elected to the House of Representatives, where he became a well-known opponent of the Gag Rule (see pp. 391 in your text).

Click on the link to read a historical essay in .pdf format regarding Adams’ stances regarding slavery: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/oas/oas_pdf/v50/p176_180.pdf

But perhaps one of the most well-known incidents with Adams was his involvement in the Amistad case. The Amistad was a slave ship bound for Cuba when the captured Africans aboard seized control of the ship. Eventually the ship was stopped by the US Coast Guard, and a court case began to determine, among other things, where the Africans were to go (the options included back to Africa, to prison or execution for mutiny, or back to the Spanish to be sold into slavery). Adams was one of the attorneys who defended the Africans during the trial. It is a fascinating story that you need to understand. Here is an article  about John Quincy Adams and the Amistad case, from the American Almanac, if you have not seen the movie: http://american_almanac.tripod.com/amistad.htm

Outline Notes Chapter 16

Outline format chapter 16 Due Wednesday/Thursday, October 19-20

I. What was the structure of Southern society?

A. Planters

Minority, aristocratic

Dependence on cotton

Ecological consequences

B. Slaves

Life

Passive Resistance

Active Rebellion

C. Non-slaveholding Southern whites

Use of racism to gain their support to planters

“Crackers” and other insults

D. Free blacks and mulattoes

II. What forces and attitudes shaped abolitionism and opposition to the spread of slavery?

A. American Colonization Society and Liberia

What is it like in Liberia now? Look it up.

B. Lane Theological Seminary and its “Rebels”

C. William L. Garrison and The Liberator

The American Anti-Slavery Society

D. Black abolitionists

E. Politics—the Liberty Party

F. The Gag Rule and John Quincy Adams

III. Important questions to answer:

A. Why did non-slaveholding whites support the planter aristocracy?

B. How did the production of cotton change geographically between 1820 and 1860?

C. What were the consequences for counties in which blacks outnumbered whites?

1. What impact might this have had on developing attitudes toward race and the defense of slavery?

D. What did slaves fear the most, and why?

E. What did whites fear the most, and why?

Preamble to the American Anti-Slavery Society Constitution

Preamble to the Constitution of the American Anti-Slavery Society

Whereas the Most High God “hath made of one blood all nations of men to dwell on all the face of the earth,” and hath commanded them to love their neighbors as themselves; and whereas, our National Existence is based upon this principle, as recognized in the Declaration of Independence, “that all mankind are created equal, and that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”; and whereas, after the lapse of nearly sixty years, since the faith and honor of the American people were pledged to this avowal, before Almighty God and the World, nearly one-sixth part of the nation are held in bondage by their fellow-citizens; and whereas, Slavery is contrary to the principles of natural justice, of our republican form of government, and of the Christian religion, and is destructive of the prosperity of the country, while it is endangering the peace, union, and liberties of the States; and whereas, we believe it the duty and interest of the masters immediately to emancipate their slaves, and that no scheme of expatriation, either voluntary or by compulsion, can remove this great and increasing evil; and whereas, we believe that it is practicable, by appeals to the consciences, hearts, and interests of the people, to awaken a public sentiment throughout the nation that will be opposed to the continuance of Slavery in any part of the Republic, and by effecting the speedy abolition of Slavery, prevent a general convulsion; and whereas, we believe we owe it to the oppressed, to our fellow-citizens who hold slaves, to our whole country, to posterity, and to God, to do all that is lawfully in our power to bring about the extinction of Slavery, we do hereby agree, with a prayerful reliance on the Divine aid, to form ourselves into a society, to be governed by the following Constitution:

Slavery in America

No sound, but powerful images are used in this video.