Archive for the ‘Chapter 36’ Category

MC practice 2-7

MC practice 2-7

1. The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by                                    853

A. outlawing strikes by public employees.

B. creating a serious inflationary spiral.

C. banning unions’ political action committees.

D. outlawing closed (all-union) shops.

E. forbidding union organizers from entering workplaces

2. The Truman Doctrine dealt with attempting to halt the spread of communism in ________________; the Eisenhower Doctrine attempted to halt the spread of communism in ____________________________.                                                                        d, 869-870, 899-900

A. Spain and Portugal; north Africa

B. Greece and Turkey; the Middle East

C. former British colonies; the Caribbean

D. Latin America; southeast Asia

E. the Middle East; sub-Saharan Africa

3. Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 60s rested on                              d, 856-7

A. welfare programs and entitlements.

B. a rising stock market.

C. absolute reliance on laissez-faire capitalism.

D. colossal military and defense spending.

E. a thriving automobile industry.

4. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about the baby boom generation?   a, d, 883

A. Mrs. Scoopmire is a baby boomer—just barely.

B. It peaked in the late 1940s.

C. It will place an enormous strain on the Social Security System in the coming decades.

D. It added more than 50 million people to the nation’s population.

E. They were the children of the World War II generation.

5. The Suez crisis marked the last time in history that the US could

A. use the threat of nuclear weapons to win concessions.

B. use its “oil weapon.”

C. condemn its allies for their actions in the Middle East (sound familiar, France?)

D. invoke the Eisenhower Doctrine.

6. Match each postwar program with its primary purpose.

A. New Look—————1. assist communist-threatened Greece and Turkey

B. NATO——————-2. promote economic recovery of Europe

C. Truman Doctrine——3. increase nuclear forces and decrease conventional forces

D. Marshall Plan———4. resist Soviet military threat

A. A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2

B. A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4

C. A-1, B-4, C-4, D-3

D. A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2

7. In 1956, when Hungary revolted against continued domination by the USSR, the US under President Eisenhower

A. sent money to the rebels.

B. did nothing to help defeat the communists.

C. refused to admit any Hungarian refugees.

D. gave only outdated military equipment to the freedom fighters.

8. In an effort to overturn Jim Crow laws and segregation, African-Americans in the 1950s used all of the following methods EXCEPT

A. economic boycotts.

B. attacking segregation in the courts.

C. nonviolent resistance.

D. mobilizing black churches to fight for civil rights.

E. appeals to foreign governments to pressure the US.

9. During his anticommunist crusade, Senator McCarthy

A. had the strong personal support of President Eisenhower.

B. had the approval of the majority of the American people.

C. actually exposed 57 members of Congress who were communists.

D. was shunned by his Republican party colleagues in Washington.

10. Among President Harry Truman’s most valuable qualities as a leader were

A. his considerable experience in international affairs.

B. his personal courage, authenticity, and sense of responsibility for big decisions.

C. his high level of educational achievement.

D. his patience and willingness to compromise with honest critics.

E. his willingness to obey the will of the people.

The significance of the GI Bill in American life

Go here ( to read historian Milton Greenberg on how the GI Bill affected American society.

Although copies were handed out in class, here are the questions over this reading in case you lose them. These are due Friday. Make sure you do your own work and answer thoroughly.

Questions for Understanding

1. (Background research) What were the specific provisions of the GI Bill of Rights? What was its other name?

2.  What group was instrumental in getting this law passed? What was the history of this organization? (You can use your book and previous class notes as well as the internet)

3. What previous historical events influenced support for this bill? Explain why these events increased support for this program.

4.  How was this law “democratic?” Was this a “radical” expansion of government power? Explain.

5. How much was the unemployment insurance? What was the justification for this? What were fears about the precedent this set?

6. What impact did this have on higher education and attitudes toward education? Be completely thorough in your answer.


7.  What kind of help was offered to veterans who did not or could not go to college?


8. How did the GI Bill help change the real estate market?

Video: The Marshall Plan

A Short propaganda video about the Marshall Plan. And why was this necessary? Here’s an explanation:

McCarthy Overview and Interview

Herb Block (Herblock was his penname) was a famous editorial cartoonist in the mid-to-late 20th century. He coined the term “McCarthyism” with this cartoon:

What does the elephant symbolize? What does the tower of tar buckets imply? What is Herblock basically saying about McCarthyism?

Here is an interview of Senator Joseph McCarthy discussing his crusade against communism:

This can also be found at

McCarthy’s downfall was accusing the Army of harboring communists and their sympathizers. Finally, the attorney for the Army, Joseph Welch, says what so many others hadn’t had the guts to say to McCarthy in the clip below, which has become famous. (To set the stage, the Army counter-accused McCarthy of seeking special favors for an associate who had been drafted, and to deflect blame, he accuse Welch himself of harboring a suspected communist sympathizer in his own law office rather than answer the charges against him. Here’s the video, with Mr. Welch being the first speaker:

(This can also be found at There are other videos linked to this page listed to the left hand side of the page at youtube if you wish to explore further.)

… and here’s a link to a site that gives the transcript of this confrontation, which is considered to be one of the greatest American speeches:

McCarthy then swiftly fell from power, and the Senate voted to censure him by a 2/3 supermajority. Here is the text of Senate Resolution 301:

So what eventually happened to McCarthy? Spartacus does a great job summing up his life and death:

Chapter 36 outline notes

Chapter 36 Outlines

Due Monday, March 14

I. What dangers did the American economy face as it adjusted to the end of World War II?

A. Transitioning to a peacetime economy—what protections were removed after the war’s end?

–1. Privatizing war factories

–2. Employment Act and the CEA

–3. How long did this transition take?

B. Employment issues

–1.What impact could returning troops have had?

–2. Taft-Hartley- what was its impact and intent?

–3. Why was Operation Dixie necessary? Whys did it go wrong?

C. The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act

–1. What else was it called?

–2. What did it do?

–3. Why did it do it?

–4. What was its impact?

(From section II onward, you need to supply the subheads and details to create detailed notes)

II. What were the causes and effects of the birth of the “Affluent Society”—1950-1973

A. Why was America’s economy relatively unscathed by World War II?

B. Underpinnings of phenomenal growth: petroleum and productivity, the Sunbelt and science

C. What specific role did military spending play?

D. What happened to the middle class? Who benefitted the most, and why? What was the impact on family and home life?

E. How did Cold War paranoia influence American life at home?

III. How did foreign alliances change as a result of the start of the Cold War?

A. How was Yalta a predictor of changes?

B. How do “spheres of influence” compare with the old alliance system?

C. How did the UN compare with the League of Nations?

D. How did Germany provide an early test of new rivalries?

E.  What were the most famous policies and documents that shaped post-war foreign policy? Be thorough.

F. What did the US SPECIFICALLY hope to gain from the Marshall Plan?

–1. Soviet response, and why?

G. What new government agencies were created to protect the US from foreign threats?

H. NATO vs. Warsaw Pact—purposes? Inherent dangers?

I. How and why was Asia also a place of competition?

J. How did the Cold War (and racial issues) impact American politics?

Review of the 1930s-1950s

America survives the Great Depression and faces the pressures of the Cold War.

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956

Here is a great website that also includes links to documents, including what the National Security Council suggested the US do about this event:

And here is a site that provides pictures and more information:

Here is an account from the London Times reprinted from November 4, 1956:

What eventually happened to Imre Nagy, the upstart prime minister of Hungary?

Truman’s Loyalty Oath program

(Remember, there were about 3 million federal employees in 1947…)


Whereas each employee of the Government of the United States is endowed with a measure of trusteeship over the democratic processes which are the heart and sinew of the United States; and

Whereas it is of vital importance that persons employed in the Federal service be of complete and unswerving loyalty to the United States; and

Whereas, although the loyalty of by far the overwhelming majority of all Government employees is beyond question, the presence within the Government service of any disloyal or subversive person constitutes a threat to our democratic processes; and

Whereas maximum protection must be afforded the United States against infiltration of disloyal persons into the ranks of its employees, and equal protection from unfounded accusations of disloyalty must be afforded the loyal employees of the Government:

Now, Therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including the Civil Service Act of 1883 (22 Stat. 403), as amended, and section 9A of the act approved August 2, 1939 (18 U.S.C. 61i), and as President and Chief Executive of the United States, it is hereby, in the interest of the internal management of the Government, ordered as follows:


1. There shall be a loyalty investigation of every person entering the civilian employment of any department or agency of the executive branch of the Federal Government….
6. An investigation shall be made of all applicants at all available pertinent sources of information and shall include reference to:
7. Federal Bureau of Investigation files.
8. Civil Service Commission files.
9. Military and naval intelligence files.
10. The files of any other appropriate government investigative or intelligence agency.
11. House Committee on un-American Activities files.
12. Local law-enforcement files at the place of residence and employment of the applicant, including municipal, county, and State law-enforcement files.
13. Schools and colleges attended by applicant.
14. Former employers of applicant.
15. References given by applicant.
16. Any other appropriate source.
17. Whenever derogatory information with respect to loyalty of an applicant is revealed a full investigation shall be conducted. A full field investigation shall also be conducted of those applicants, or of applicants for particular positions, as may be designated by the head of the employing department or agency, such designations to be based on the determination by any such head of the best interests of national security.


1. The head of each department and agency in the executive branch of the Government shall be personally responsible for an effective program to assure that disloyal civilian officers or employees are not retained in employment in his department or agency….
4. The head of each department and agency shall appoint one or more loyalty boards, each composed of not less than three representatives of the department or agency concerned, for the purpose of hearing loyalty cases arising within such department or agency and making recommendations with respect to the removal of any officer or employee of such department or agency on grounds relating to loyalty, and he shall prescribe regulations for the conduct of the proceedings before such boards.
5. An officer or employee who is charged with being disloyal shall have a right to an administrative hearing before a loyalty board in the employing department or agency. He may appear before such board personally, accompanied by counsel or representative of his own choosing, and present evidence on his own behalf, through witnesses or by affidavit….


1. There shall be established in the Civil Service Commission a Loyalty Review Board of not less than three impartial persons, the members of which shall be officers or employees of the Commission.
2. The Board shall have authority to review cases involving persons recommended for dismissal on grounds relating to loyalty by the loyalty board of any department or agency and to make advisory recommendations thereon to the head of the employing department or agency. Such cases may be referred to the Board either by the employing department or agency, or by the officer or employee concerned….

2. There shall also be established and maintained in the Civil Service Commission a central master index covering all persons on whom loyalty investigations have been made by any department or agency since September 1, 1939. Such master index shall contain the name of each person investigated, adequate identifying information concerning each such person, and a reference to each department and agency which has conducted a loyalty investigation concerning the person involved….
3. The loyalty Review Board shall currently be furnished by the Department of Justice the name of each foreign or domestic organization, association, movement, group or combination of persons which the Attorney General, after appropriate investigation and determination, designates as totalitarian, fascist, communist or subversive, or as having adopted a policy of advocating or approving the commission of acts of force or violence to deny others their rights under the Constitution of the United States, or as seeking to alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means.
4. The Loyalty Review Board shall disseminate such information to all departments and agencies….


1. The standard for the refusal of employment or the removal from employment in an executive department or agency on grounds relating to loyalty shall be that, on all the evidence, reasonable grounds exist for belief that the person involved is disloyal to the Government of the United States.
2. Activities and associations of an applicant or employee which may be considered in connection with the determination of disloyalty may include one or more of the following:
3. Sabotage, espionage, or attempts or preparations therefor, or knowingly associating with spies or saboteurs;
4. Treason or sedition or advocacy thereof;
5. Advocacy of revolution or force or violence to alter the constitutional form of government of the United States;
6. Intentional, unauthorized disclosure to any person, under circumstances which may indicate disloyalty to the United States, of documents or information of a confidential or non-public character obtained by the person making the disclosure as a result of his employment by the Government of the United States;
7. Performing or attempting to perform his duties, or otherwise acting, so as to serve the interests of another government in preference to the interests of the United States.
8. Membership in, affiliation with or sympathetic association with any foreign or domestic organization, association, movement, group or combination of persons, designated by the Attorney General as totalitarian, fascist, communist, or subversive, or as having adopted a policy of advocating or approving the commission of acts of force or violence to deny other persons their rights under the Constitution of the United States, or as seeking to alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means….

Harry S. Truman
The White House,
March 21, 1947.

Korea in the news right now

The Cold War is still not over in Korea. It is interesting that the very first assumption was that the South Korean ship was sunk by North Korea.;_ylt=Aj6OdZc9NHShsOCDaNZKRR.s0NUE;_ylu=X3oDMTNoaHZyYjhrBGFzc2V0A25tLzIwMTAwMzI2L3VzX2tvcmVhX3NoaXAEY2NvZGUDbW9zdHBvcHVsYXIEY3BvcwM0BHBvcwMxBHB0A2hvbWVfY29rZQRzZWMDeW5faGVhZGxpbmVfbGlzdARzbGsDc291dGhrb3JlYW5z

The Dixiecrats and the Election of 1948

In 1948 some Southern Democrats decided to bolt the Democratic party because of its Civil Rights policies and have a separate State’s Rights Democratic national ticket. They were called Dixiecrats. Strom Thurmond was their presidential candidate. They had a convention in Birmingham, Alabama. Newspaper accounts of the events, along with the photos of the convention show the thoroughly Confederate nature of their movement. Ironically, all the campaign literature used national symbols, including the Statue of Liberty. So even though they were Confederate and sectional, they were conscious of the need to project a different image to the nation. This information comes from a microfilm from the University of Mississippi called the States Rights Scrapbook.

The following are some excerpts of newspaper reports in the Alabama and Mississippi papers at the time. Remember that the “Stars and Bars” is the well-known Confederate Battle Flag.

The Birmingham News – Sunday, July 18, 1948 – page 1.
Orators Have Field Day
It was a responsive, excited, sometimes hysterical crowd — and the convention orators made the most of it. The magic names were Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis. They never failed to bring swelling roars from the audience.
The rat-tat-tat of “Dixie” played by a swing band, raised the people screaming to their feet. The phrasemakers talked over and over about “the dagger in the back of the South.” Recognizing its cure, the crowd yelled back with one, vast voice.
The swaying state standards, Confederate banners, gyrating paraders, all bathed in the unreal …

The Birmingham Post, Saturday, July 17, 1948 – page 1, from an article “Around the Hall.”
Hats Go Off for Stars and Bars
The entire audience stood silently with hats over hearts at 10:18 a.m. when a delegation of University of Mississippi students marched to their seats behind the Confederate battle flag.
It was the most impressive and best organized stunt of the convention until that hour and gave the anxious crowd a “break’ in their wait for the delayed opening of the conclave.
They were followed into the hall seven minutes later by 10 Birmingham-Southern College students wearing string bow ties and carrying both Confederate battle and Alabama state flags.

Voice is Willing But Mike is Dead
Thomas Maxwell, Tuscaloosa political figure who once advocated “shipping the Negroes back to Africa” in a campaign address for the U.S. Senate took the limelight early, trying on several occasions to talk to the assembled delegates over a “dead” mike.

Lee’s Picture Brings Cheers
Best “prop” brought onto the convention floor was a picture of Gen. Robert E. Lee, carried high by a group of from 30 to 40 Birmingham-Southern students, most of them members of Kappa Alpha fraternity.
The stunt pulled at 10:40 a.m. brought a spontaneous cheer from the near capacity crowd of some 48000 delegates and spectators.

The Birmingham News, Saturday, July 17, 1948 – front page.
There is a photo of students with Confederate battle flags. The following is the caption.
STUDENTS FAN REVOLT FIRES – More than 50 black-hatted University of Mississippi students converged on Birmingham for the “grass roots” convention Saturday of revolting Southern States Rights Democrats. They were picked as “student delegates” at a hurriedly called meeting on the university campus yesterday. “We’re not here on a student lark, but are on serious important business,” said one of them. Six of them are pictured above in the Tutwiler Hotel Lobby. Left to right, they are Eddie K. Wilson, John C. Murray, Jr., Cleveland Davis, Lamar Triplett, Andrew Sullivan Jr. and Bobby Gene Jones.

Also, from the same page is an article about the conventions.
… Ruby Mercer, singing star of the Starlight Opera, started the conference off with the “Star Spangled Banner,” and broke into “Dixie,” drawing cheers from the auditorium. She sang a second chorus which the audience joined in.
Something like hysterical excitement swept the auditorium as Bull Conner, Alabama delegate, called walkout delegates from Mississippi and Alabama to the stage. The audience whooped and gave out rebel yells as walkouters bore their state flags and Confederate flags tot he front of the auditorium.

[Note: “Walkouters” were Democratic delegates to the Democratic national convention who walked out in protest over the Democratic adoption of a Civil Rights plank in the Democratic platform. Continuing.]

At 10:30 a.m., a half-hour after the convention originally was scheduled to start, Municipal Auditorium was about half-filled. Spectators, several carrying Confederate flags, filled the balcony seats about halfway to the rear of the hall. …
… Cheers broke out from the audience off and on as a band on the stage played such Southern tunes as “Deep in the Heart of Texas,” “Dixie,” “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny,” A “Rebel Yell” ripped across the hall.

Columbian Progress, July 22, 1948, front page caption under a photo.
The above picture shows Attorney Kelly J. Hammond, local attorney, leading the Mississippi delegation into the convention hall at Birmingham waving a Confederate flag.This was the first Confederate flag to enter the huge hall and brought the crowd to their feet with Rebel yells and applause. Also shown in the picture with Mr. Hammond are Willie Beebe, John Horn and Rev. L.R. Horn also of Marion county. (photo courtesy of Birmingham Post)

The Birmingham News, July 17, 1948, Late sports edition, front page articles and photos. One article was about the Henry Wallace (Not George Wallace) supporters being booed. The members of the Progressive Democrats, another third-party, picked the Dixiecrats.

Reb Flags Greet Wallace Pickets

Dixiecrats Boo Third Party Group
Pickets bearing pro-Henry Wallace signs appeared briefly before the meeting hall of the Southern states’ rights convention to be greeted by a host of Confederate flags. There is a picture of one of the Henry Wallace picketers hold a sign with the slogan, “End Lynching – Win With Wallace.” The caption reads, “Wallace Picket Mocked.”
On page 2 of the same issue is an article about former Oklahoma Gov. William H. Murray, known as “Alfalfa Bill” who is here for the convention. There was a photo of two students with their “original Confederate flag” listening to Murray with the following caption. The same photo and caption was also on the front page of the Birmingham Post, July 17, 1948.