Archive for the ‘Class discussion’ Category

Links to article from this week’s discussion on citizenship

Maryland Heights woman tries to prove her US citizenship:

Legal definition of Jus soli:

Legal definition of Jus sanguinis:

Here’s a story of widowed spouses facing deportation:

Some politicians have called for the 14th Amendment to be revised:

Submarine warfare in the Civil War: the CSS Hunley

The first submarine ever used in warfare was named The Turtle, appropriately enough. Take a guess when it was used– would you say 1914, or 1899 or even 1864? You would be wrong.

The Turtle was a one-man- human powered sub– used against the British in 1776. It was designed by American David Bushnell during the Revolutionary War. It failed to damage any British ships, but it made the British a lot more vigilant about security for their ships.

Robert Fulton, of steamboat fame, built a submarine named the Nautilus in France in 1801. It even had a sail for propulsion when it was on the surface.

The Confederate States of America first tried to use a submarine-like ship when it lauched the David in 1862. Its smokestack and breathing tube stuck up above the waterline, so it wasn’t completely submersed, but it was close to being a submarine. It used a spar torpedo (an explosive charge attached to a pole on the bow of the vessel) to punch a hole in a Union ironclad, but the ship did not sink. The Confederacy built 20 more Davids, but none of them managed actually to sink an enemy ship.

Click on the above black box to see an artist’s rendering of the Hunley.

So along came the Hunley. Forty feet long and only 4 feet wide, it was a converted boiler. It carried a nine man crew, and eight of them turned a crankshaft to propel the ship forward. The goal was to implant the explosive canister from a spar torpedo again. Yet this was a very dangerous assignment. The men sat hunched over in the darkness, their only light a candle– which also would warn them that their oxygen was depleted when it sputtered out. Several crews died, but eventually, on July 17, 1864, the Hunley sank the USS Housatonic near Charleston harbor. But the sub and its crew were never seen again.

The sub, in fact, was lost completely, until it was discovered by divers in 1995. In 2000, it was carefully brought to the surface. The remains of its crew were examined and later laid to rest. The Hunley is now being restored so that it can go on permanent display.

The Union made its own sub, name the Intelligent Whale, but it was never used in battle. They also bought a sub from the French, the Alligator, but it was lost at sea in 1862. Submarines would not be used again in battle by Americans until the 20th century.

Links for further information:
David Bushnell and the first American submarine
Who were the crew of the Hunley?
Civil War submarines

Links on the election of 1860 and the Crittenden Compromise

The election of 1860, from nominating conventions to results:

The Crittenden Compromise:

The importance of the 14th Amendment

Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment read thus (emphasis mine):

“Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

This site ( a good outline of some of the things we talked about in class and that we will talk about. Notice that the first sentence is about overturning the Dred Scott decision (Ask yourself: what was the opinion of the court regarding citizenship of African-Americans in that case?).

What is important to remember is that the 14th Amendment, for the first time, made the protections of the Bill of Rights binding upon the STATES, not just the Federal government, as was the original intent of the framers of the Constitution, and especially those with anti-federalist opinions. The 14th Amendment tells STATES that they have to fulfill the obligations of the Federal Bill of Rights. This is known as the incorporation doctrine.

Make sure you understand what the two clauses– due process and equal protection– mean.

I strongly urge you to go to the link provided above and read the article thoroughly.

Review items for midterm

Encomienda/ Black Legend/ Treaty of Tordesillas/ impact of Crusades
Columbian Exchange and impact worldwide – food and microbes
Impact of New World gold on Old World economy/ capitalism
early exploration- differences between Spanish, French, English; Treaty of Tordesillas; impact on Native peoples
Impact of horses, weapons, and trade goods on Native Peoples
Iroquois Confederacy/Powhatan’s Confederation/ Handsome Lake/ Tecumseh
Jamestown vs, Massachusetts similarities and differences
Pilgrims and Puritans- beliefs and differences/ Model of Christian Charity/ Virginia Company
Labor- indentured servitude/ slavery/ immigration/ early industrialization/ headright system
Egalitarianism vs. class structure/ women’s rights/
Family structure differences between Jamestown and Massachusetts
Reasons for settling of early colonies/ Carolinas/ New York/ Maryland/ Pennsylvania/ Georgia, etc
Anne Hutchinson, Roger Williams and Rhode Island, Quakers
Salem Witch Trials
Half-way Covenant- reasons for implementation, effect of compromise
Early agriculture by region/ tobacco/ cotton /cotton gin/ westward settlement
Women’s sphere
Religion- influence on settlement, establishment, religious dissent, Connecticut Blue Laws, Act of Toleration, main denominations
Most populous/ wealthy colonies/ politically powerful
Attempts at Unity/ problem of disunity
Economic and democratic features of Constitution/ demigods/ Charles Beard
Early governments: Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders, House of Burgesses, town meetings, voting requirements, state constitutions
New England Confederation/ Dominion of New England- differences, reasons for establishment
Benign neglect/ Navigation laws/ Mercantilism
Natural rights/ rights of Englishmen/ common law/ feme covert/ Zenger case
French and Indian War- causes, personages, impact on relation with England
Albany Congress
Proclamation of 1763
Early agriculture by region/ tobacco/ cotton /cotton gin/ westward settlement
Reasons for American Revolution/ Intolerable Acts/ taxation policy
Patrick Henry/ Samuel Adams/ John Adams/ Benedict Arnold
Republicanism/ Common Sense
Land Ordinance 1785/ Northwest Ordinance 1787
Concept of sovereignty
Founding Fathers and slavery
Native people in French and Indian War and Revolution
Triangular trade—goods and seaports
1st Great Awakening- causes, impacts major figures
Jeffersonian/ Hamiltonian disagreements
beginning of political parties- issues, leaders, beliefs
Articles of Confederation-accomplishments, weaknesses
Republican Motherhood/ runaway wives
Impact of Revolution on Slavery
Philosophical foundations of Revolution and Constitution
Main features of Constitution- enumerated powers, function of different branches of govt., Bill of Rights, fundamental law, Electoral College, elastic clause, necessary and proper, advise and consent, implied powers, habeas corpus
Interpretation of Constitution: strict-loose interpretation/Compact theory/ doctrine of nullification/ attempts at secession, Va. and Ky. Resolutions
Alien and Sedition Acts
Rebellions: Shays’, Whiskey, Bacon’s, slave uprisings, Regulators, Paxton Boys and impacts
Compromises in Constitution and impacts
Relations with France and England during the early Republic/ Franco-American treaty/ Embargo Act/ Macon’s Bill No. 2
Major Treaties: Peace of Paris, Ghent, Greenville, Jay, Pinckney,
Basic beliefs of Whig party
Precedents of Washington’s presidency
Creation of Market economy/ early industrialization
John Marshall’s influence, main cases, and beliefs/ judicial review
Tariffs and protests- Hamilton’s financial plan, 1816, 1824, 1828, SC Exposition
Transportation-infrastructure/American System/ Canals, steamboats/ Cumberland Road/ right of deposit
Jeffersonian Democracy/ Common man/ natural aristocracy
Debtor vs. Creditor/ currency issues
1st and 2nd Bank of the US
Empire for Liberty/ yeoman farmer/ Louisiana Purchase/ Jefferson’s dilemma
Westward expansion and Mississippi River/ Indian Removal
Lewis and Clark/ Corps of Discovery
War of 1812—Causes/Frontier/Impressment/ 2nd War of Independence/ Star Spangled Banner
Nationalism/ sectionalism- tension
Era of Good Feelings
Rise of Andrew Jackson
Jacksonian Democracy
Major documents

Seismic event chart from the newspaper

Comparison Chart of Seismic events

The Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 was the worst one recorded in the US. Here is info here:

The ones here in Missouri between 1811 and 1812 actually made the Mississippi forge a new path and flow northward for a time:

Notetaking from a text: An Overview

Guidelines to follow when attempting to take notes from a textbook:

1. Skim the chapter or material to be summarized.

2. Divide it up into no more than three to five subheadings of subtopics, if possible. Do not fall into the trap of having thirteen or eighteen subheadings– you will not make any sense of the text, and there is no way you can remember that many ideas in addition to all the details.

3. Organize each subheading around a question or prompt. The question type that is most helpful is called an essential question. Then organize the rest of the material in the chapter under each subheading in order to help answer the question or prompt.

4. Benefits? This notetaking method will enable you to reorganize a chapter which does not seem to be organized logically or thematically. It also causes you to interact with the text in such a way that your comprehension will improve more than if you merely passively read. You will be making meaning of the text yourself, which will also aid retention of the information. This should save you time in studying and learning.

Below is the outline I have drawn up for chapter 7.

I. Why did mercantilism cause colonial dissatisfaction with British policies?

A. Explanation of mercantilism

B. Benefits/ disadvantages to the mother country

C. Benefits/disadvantages to colonies

D. How did it help unify the colonies

E. What finally caused the British to attempt to strictly enforce mercantilist policies?

II. What were the various schemes used by the British to raise revenue?

A, B, C, D, etc—various taxes and their intents, whether they were repealed….

F. What was the purpose of the Quartering Act, and how did colonists respond? Why?

G. Declaratory Act

III. How did colonists react to each specific tax? How did the rebellion grow?

A. Massacre

B. Tea Party

C. Committees of Correspondence

D. Stamp Act Congress

E. Boycotts

F. Riots

G. Shots fired, Dec of Causes of Taking Up Arms

H. Declaring independence

IV. Compare the various advantages and disadvantages of each potential side as the Revolution became more likely.