Archive for the ‘Reconstruction’ Category

Chapter 23 questions- These are due December 11, 2013

Always be specific in your answer and include dates as well!

1. What were the two parties’ differing views of  Reconstruction, and how did that influence their choices in the election of 1868? What does “waving the bloody shirt” and “the bloody chasm”mean?

2. What was the “Ohio Idea” and how would have affected the economy? Why do debtors like inflation?

3. Why were Republicans especially indebted to the 15th Amendment for their victory in 1868?

4. What were the practical effects of the Fisk/Gould conspiracy and of the Tweed Ring scandal?

5. What does “graft” and “honest graft” mean? Who eventually brought down Tweed?

6. Describe the Credit Mobilier, Belknap and Whiskey Ring scandals. What does this indicate about Grant’s abilities?

7. Describe the strange story of the Liberal Republicans and Horace Greeley. Why did Democratic support of Greeley seem strange? What six sins did regular Republicans accuse Greeley of?

8. What caused the Panic of 1873? What is the difference between “hard-money” and “cheap-money” supporters and what they wanted (include a discussion of the Resumption Act)?

9. What was the “Crime of ‘73” and how did the amount of silver in circulation influence it? Why did debtors want the government to encourage inflation, and how exactly was that to be done?

10. What was the political fallout regarding all this struggle over currency and monetary policy?

11. Why were elections so close during the “Gilded Age?” What were the real differences between Republicans and Democrats?

12. What on Earth are “Half-Breeds,” “Stalwarts,” and “Mugwumps?”

13. Why was Ohio so politically important? What role did it play in each of the elections in this chapter?

14. Why was the election of 1876 thrown into turmoil? How was this resolved?

15.List the specific benefits the South received as a result of the election of 1876. What were the long-term consequences of the election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877?

16. How exactly were former slaves (and poor whites) virtually enslaved after the end of Reconstruction?

17. What caused the great railroad strike of 1877? How was this settled? Which side did the federal government take? Why could workers not unify to demand better treatment and wages?

18. Why was the Chinese Exclusionary Act passed? What is the difference between jus soli and jus sanguinis?

19. What role did patronage play in the second assassination of a US president? What reform was passed in the wake of this assassination, and what did it do?

20. Why was the presidential campaign of 1884 one of the dirtiest ever? What were the accusations hurled on both sides?

21. How did the Civil War influence politics throughout the last half of the 19th century?

22. Where did the “Billion Dollar Congress” get all of its money, and why was it determined to spend it all? (Consider the previous question as well).

23. What did the Populists want? Where were they strongest? Why did Southern blacks end up losing as the Populists became more powerful?

24. How did Cleveland end up being elected again in 1892 after losing in 1888?

25. How bad was the Depression of 1893? Why did currency issues crop up again? How was the crisis averted? Why is this so ironic, given what has happened in the US in 2008-2009)?

26. Who are the “Forgettable presidents” and why are they called that?

27. Did this era deserve the name “Gilded Age?” Explain.

Chapter 22 questions- These are due Monday, Dec. 9, 2013

Remember to check the schedule under upcoming deadlines for how the semester has been adjusted due to EOC week.


1. How did the end of the war affect most Southerners’ views regarding their understanding of the union and their “lost cause?” What happened to most Confederate leaders?
2. How quickly was emancipation implemented? What tasks did most freedmen then set out to do and rights did they claim for the first time?
3. Who were the Exodusters, and how many were there? Where were they headed, and why? Why did this movement end?
4. What was the full name and mission of the Freedmen’s Bureau? Who led it? What was it most successful at? How did white Southerners view it, and why was that kind of spiteful? What precedent did this agency set in terms of government responsibility for citizens? What did Andrew Johnson do to it and why? What impact did this have on his presidency?
5. What factors had led to choosing Andrew Johnson as Lincoln’s vice president in 1864? What group in particular did he champion as a politician? Who were the leaders of the Radical Republicans who opposed him so vehemently?
6. What were the basic differences between presidential and congressional Reconstruction. Start by comparing Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction with the Wade Davis Bill. Which was more lenient, and why? How was Johnson’s plan unique, and which one was it most similar to? What is the “conquered provinces” theory, and who promoted it? Why were Congressional Republicans concerned about what would happen if the Southern states rapidly regained their representation in Congress?
7. What was the main purpose of the Black Codes? What were the major provisions of these? How did Northerners interpret these kinds of laws?
8. What were the main provisions of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866? What happened to this bill, and why? How is this law connected to the 14th Amendment? What did the 14th Amendment do? What did it say about Confederate officials? Which Southern states ratified the 14th Amendment in 1866?
9. What did the 15th Amendment do? Why were feminists disappointed in it (as well as with the 14th Amendment?
10. Discuss the activities of other groups besides the Freedmen’s Bureau that attempted to help freedmen—the Union League and the American Missionary Association, in particular. How did African American women get involved in securing rights for blacks, and what limits were placed upon them?
11. What were “Radical Reconstruction” governments’ accomplishments? How corrupt were they compared to governments elsewhere? What are scalawags and carpetbaggers?
12. Where, when how, and why did the Ku Klux Klan rise up originally? What were its goals? What attempts did the federal government make to suppress the Klan (include dates!!!!)?
13. Why did Congress finally attempt to impeach Johnson? What was the specific charge? Was this legitimate? How did Johnson escape?
14. How and why did we attain Alaska? Why was this important?
15. What were the basic philosophical controversies that were confronted during Reconstruction, besides how to readmit Southern states to full membership in the Union?
16. Make a chart detailing the intents of each of these laws:
– Military Reconstruction Act
-Tenure of Office Act
-Freedmen’s Bureau Act
-Force Acts

DBQ pictures- clean version

If you have lost your copy of the DBQ packet, a .pdf file can be found here:

Reconstruction DBQ

Document I is difficult to read. Below is a cleaner version:

I have found the other picture, but I can’t get to the menu now here at the school, so check back here after I get home and I will put it right here.

"The First Vote"

“The First Vote”

The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878

In the wake of the end of Reconstruction in 1877, federal law was enacted to make illegal using federal active duty troops as enforcers of laws on American soil except in emergency circumstances– in other words, to make sure nothing like the Military reconstruction of the South could ever happen again. Thus, to this day, domestic military policy is governed by the Posse Comitatus Act. Read here ( for a summary of the law and its consequences.

Interestingly, there has recently been some discussion that the law needs to be changed particularly in light of the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. This law is the reason why the National Guard, rather than the regular military, is used after national disasters, and, in a limited manner, along our nation’s borders. But the law has its roots in Southern resentment of the use of federal troops to enforce the laws regarding the treatment of freedmen during and after the Civil War.

The Colfax Massacre

Great summary from PBS:

The Incorporation Doctrine

Read this. It explains the history of the incorporation doctrine, which holds that at least some of the protections in the Bill of Rights applies to actions of the state and local governments as well as the federal government via the 14th Amendment.

About the Enforcement Acts

Go here to see a good summary from PBS’ wonderful series on Jim Crow: I would use this site often over the next few chapters as well as to prepare for your test next Tuesday!!!