Archive for the ‘Reconstruction’ Category

Chapter 23 questions- These are due December 11, 2013

Always be specific in your answer and include dates as well!

1. What were the two parties’ differing views of  Reconstruction, and how did that influence their choices in the election of 1868? What does “waving the bloody shirt” and “the bloody chasm”mean?

2. What was the “Ohio Idea” and how would have affected the economy? Why do debtors like inflation?

3. Why were Republicans especially indebted to the 15th Amendment for their victory in 1868?

4. What were the practical effects of the Fisk/Gould conspiracy and of the Tweed Ring scandal?

5. What does “graft” and “honest graft” mean? Who eventually brought down Tweed?

6. Describe the Credit Mobilier, Belknap and Whiskey Ring scandals. What does this indicate about Grant’s abilities?

7. Describe the strange story of the Liberal Republicans and Horace Greeley. Why did Democratic support of Greeley seem strange? What six sins did regular Republicans accuse Greeley of?

8. What caused the Panic of 1873? What is the difference between “hard-money” and “cheap-money” supporters and what they wanted (include a discussion of the Resumption Act)?

9. What was the “Crime of ‘73” and how did the amount of silver in circulation influence it? Why did debtors want the government to encourage inflation, and how exactly was that to be done?

10. What was the political fallout regarding all this struggle over currency and monetary policy?

11. Why were elections so close during the “Gilded Age?” What were the real differences between Republicans and Democrats?

12. What on Earth are “Half-Breeds,” “Stalwarts,” and “Mugwumps?”

13. Why was Ohio so politically important? What role did it play in each of the elections in this chapter?

14. Why was the election of 1876 thrown into turmoil? How was this resolved?

15.List the specific benefits the South received as a result of the election of 1876. What were the long-term consequences of the election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877?

16. How exactly were former slaves (and poor whites) virtually enslaved after the end of Reconstruction?

17. What caused the great railroad strike of 1877? How was this settled? Which side did the federal government take? Why could workers not unify to demand better treatment and wages?

18. Why was the Chinese Exclusionary Act passed? What is the difference between jus soli and jus sanguinis?

19. What role did patronage play in the second assassination of a US president? What reform was passed in the wake of this assassination, and what did it do?

20. Why was the presidential campaign of 1884 one of the dirtiest ever? What were the accusations hurled on both sides?

21. How did the Civil War influence politics throughout the last half of the 19th century?

22. Where did the “Billion Dollar Congress” get all of its money, and why was it determined to spend it all? (Consider the previous question as well).

23. What did the Populists want? Where were they strongest? Why did Southern blacks end up losing as the Populists became more powerful?

24. How did Cleveland end up being elected again in 1892 after losing in 1888?

25. How bad was the Depression of 1893? Why did currency issues crop up again? How was the crisis averted? Why is this so ironic, given what has happened in the US in 2008-2009)?

26. Who are the “Forgettable presidents” and why are they called that?

27. Did this era deserve the name “Gilded Age?” Explain.

Chapter 22 questions- These are due Monday, Dec. 9, 2013

Remember to check the schedule under upcoming deadlines for how the semester has been adjusted due to EOC week.


1. How did the end of the war affect most Southerners’ views regarding their understanding of the union and their “lost cause?” What happened to most Confederate leaders?
2. How quickly was emancipation implemented? What tasks did most freedmen then set out to do and rights did they claim for the first time?
3. Who were the Exodusters, and how many were there? Where were they headed, and why? Why did this movement end?
4. What was the full name and mission of the Freedmen’s Bureau? Who led it? What was it most successful at? How did white Southerners view it, and why was that kind of spiteful? What precedent did this agency set in terms of government responsibility for citizens? What did Andrew Johnson do to it and why? What impact did this have on his presidency?
5. What factors had led to choosing Andrew Johnson as Lincoln’s vice president in 1864? What group in particular did he champion as a politician? Who were the leaders of the Radical Republicans who opposed him so vehemently?
6. What were the basic differences between presidential and congressional Reconstruction. Start by comparing Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction with the Wade Davis Bill. Which was more lenient, and why? How was Johnson’s plan unique, and which one was it most similar to? What is the “conquered provinces” theory, and who promoted it? Why were Congressional Republicans concerned about what would happen if the Southern states rapidly regained their representation in Congress?
7. What was the main purpose of the Black Codes? What were the major provisions of these? How did Northerners interpret these kinds of laws?
8. What were the main provisions of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866? What happened to this bill, and why? How is this law connected to the 14th Amendment? What did the 14th Amendment do? What did it say about Confederate officials? Which Southern states ratified the 14th Amendment in 1866?
9. What did the 15th Amendment do? Why were feminists disappointed in it (as well as with the 14th Amendment?
10. Discuss the activities of other groups besides the Freedmen’s Bureau that attempted to help freedmen—the Union League and the American Missionary Association, in particular. How did African American women get involved in securing rights for blacks, and what limits were placed upon them?
11. What were “Radical Reconstruction” governments’ accomplishments? How corrupt were they compared to governments elsewhere? What are scalawags and carpetbaggers?
12. Where, when how, and why did the Ku Klux Klan rise up originally? What were its goals? What attempts did the federal government make to suppress the Klan (include dates!!!!)?
13. Why did Congress finally attempt to impeach Johnson? What was the specific charge? Was this legitimate? How did Johnson escape?
14. How and why did we attain Alaska? Why was this important?
15. What were the basic philosophical controversies that were confronted during Reconstruction, besides how to readmit Southern states to full membership in the Union?
16. Make a chart detailing the intents of each of these laws:
– Military Reconstruction Act
-Tenure of Office Act
-Freedmen’s Bureau Act
-Force Acts

DBQ pictures- clean version

If you have lost your copy of the DBQ packet, a .pdf file can be found here:

Reconstruction DBQ

Document I is difficult to read. Below is a cleaner version:

I have found the other picture, but I can’t get to the menu now here at the school, so check back here after I get home and I will put it right here.

"The First Vote"

“The First Vote”

The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878

In the wake of the end of Reconstruction in 1877, federal law was enacted to make illegal using federal active duty troops as enforcers of laws on American soil except in emergency circumstances– in other words, to make sure nothing like the Military reconstruction of the South could ever happen again. Thus, to this day, domestic military policy is governed by the Posse Comitatus Act. Read here ( for a summary of the law and its consequences.

Interestingly, there has recently been some discussion that the law needs to be changed particularly in light of the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. This law is the reason why the National Guard, rather than the regular military, is used after national disasters, and, in a limited manner, along our nation’s borders. But the law has its roots in Southern resentment of the use of federal troops to enforce the laws regarding the treatment of freedmen during and after the Civil War.

The Colfax Massacre

Great summary from PBS:

The Incorporation Doctrine

Read this. It explains the history of the incorporation doctrine, which holds that at least some of the protections in the Bill of Rights applies to actions of the state and local governments as well as the federal government via the 14th Amendment.

About the Enforcement Acts

Go here to see a good summary from PBS’ wonderful series on Jim Crow: I would use this site often over the next few chapters as well as to prepare for your test next Tuesday!!!



Good Links on Reconstruction and Study Guide to Understanding Reconstruction Politically

Overview from Ohio History Central

High Beam Encyclopedia

What happened in Arkanas during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Louisiana during Reconstruction

Questions for understanding:
1. Why were there competing plans for Reconstruction?
2. Why did Congress seek to assert more authority in the closing months of the Civil War?
3. Louisiana and Arkansas were captured relatively early in the Civil War. What happened in these states when they initially attempted to rejoin the Union fully?

Try to find the answers to these questions before you read the documents relating to the debate over the Wade Davis Bill, which is really a power struggle over which branch of government should reign supreme.

Presentation assignments

Here is what each person will be doing for their short presentation. Find your group and your initials. You will need to prepare a 4 minute presentation and a page with a picture and 10 facts to be posted in the classroom after your presentation. These are due Thursday and Friday


MD—            John Wilkes Booth

DH—            Arlington National Cemetery

AH—            Sherman’s March to the Sea

AM—            Carpetbaggers

SM—            Conspiracy for Lincoln’s Assassination

CM—            Founding of the Ku Klux Klan

BN—            Pickett’s Charge

WT—            Underground Railroad


NB—            Inventions during Civil War

DB—            Loreta Janeta Velaszquez

CB—            Family members versus family members

MB—            Pilot Knob

AC—            Battle of Antietam

MC—            Pauline Cushman, Union spy

JD—            George McClellan

DE—            Elizabeth Blackwell

JF—            Battle of Vicksburg

MF—            Rose O’Neal Greenhow

EF—            Abe Lincoln and Slavery

DH—            Jesse James

CH—            Mary Edwards Walker

MH—            Shiloh

RL—            Slaves joining the Army

SM—            Ironclads on the Mississippi

LM—            Irish soldiers in the Civil War

RO—            Thomas Jackson

MP—            1st assassination attempt Lincoln- Baltimore Plot

CS—            Jayhawkers

KS—            Women and the 15th Amendment

TY—            Clement Vallandingham


EB—            Gatling Gun

BB—            Civil War Small Arms Development

BC—            Confederate Flags

JC—            William Quantrill and His Raiders

CC—            Black Codes

KC—            Civil War in St. Louis

JC—            Merrimack v. Monitor

CC—            Battle of Culp’s Hill/ at Gettysburg

TD—            Grant’s Battle Tactics

SF—            Dorothea Dix

AG—            Battle of Cherbourg

MH—            Burnside’s Leadership

BK—            Mary Todd Lincoln

KK—            Sanitation Commission

AL—            Weird Civil War Fashions

VM—            Clara Barton

RM —            Founding of American Red Cross

BR—            Hot Air Balloons in the Civil War


AB—            McClellan’s incompetency

SD—            Vicksburg

KD—            Chickamauga

RD—            Creation of Cemetery at Gettysburg

GE—            Nathan Bedford Forrest

RF—            Battle of the Crater

JH—            Unconventional methods of medical treatment

JJ—            Cole Younger

MKh—            CSS Alabama

MKi—            Male confederate spy

DK—            Cherokees in Civil War

SL—            Women in the American Missionary Association

AMai—            CSS Hunley

JM—            Military districts in Reconstruction

AMat—            Army of the Potomac

JM—            Camp Davis

KP—            First black congressmen

AP—            Andersonville Prison

JR—            Jefferson Davis

JS—            Death of Stonewall Jackson

ZS—            Confederate Congress

MZ—            Battle of Chancellorsville

Eric Foner on Reconstruction

This brief assignment will be due next Monday, December 14.

Eric Foner is an award-winning historian who is acknowledged to be one of the foremost experts on racial relations and Reconstruction. No good student of US history should be unfamiliar with his work.

Go to this site to read Mr. Foner’s explanation of the effects that Reconstruction had upon the people and political system of the late 19th century.

Answer the following questions: 1. Analyze the differences in word and in practice between slavery and sharecropping? Was sharecropping better than slavery? Explain.

2. On the article entitled “Rights and Power” summarize the answers to the 3 questions that Mr. Foner says that the debate on Reconstruction was focused around.

3. Then compare black Republican state governments with white Democratic “home rule” state governments.