Terms for Semester 1 Chapters

Chapter Study Guides—Semester 1—Scoopmire

Chapter 1 New World Beginnings, 33,000 BC- AD 1769
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Mississippian culture, Anasazi, Cahokia
Iroquois, L’Anse aux Meadows, Vinland
Ferdinand/Isabella, Christopher Columbus, “sugar revolution”
Taino, Treaty of Tordesillas, Tenochtitlan
encomienda, Giovanni Caboto, St. Augustine (FL)
Juan de Onate, Battle of Acoma, Pope’s Rebellion
conquistadores, mestizos, “three sister” agriculture
Juan Ponce de Leon, Moctezuma, Junipero Serra
Ferdinand Magellan, Hernan Cortes, mission Indians
Francisco Coronado, tidewater region, Franciscans
Hernando de Soto, Malinche, “Black Legend”
Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Quetzalcoatl, Hispaniola
Bartolome de Las Casas, maize, Robert La Salle
Mound Builders, Battle of Acoma, Alamo
Be able to explain the following fully:
— What kind of environmental impact did Native Americans have? Why do you think this impact was significantly different from that of the Europeans?
— What was the impetus for European exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries?
— Describe the impact of interaction between Europe and the Americas, including the global effects of the Columbian exchange of plants, and of the introduction of European illnesses into the Americas.
— Describe the system of encomienda. What was the ethical rationale for this system? What were the practical effects of this system?

Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, 1500-1733
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Sir Walter Raleigh, Roanoke Island, Virginia
“surplus population”, charter, Powhatan
“starving time”, “Irish tactics”, 1st Anglo-Powhatan War
2nd Anglo-Powhatan War, “three Ds”, Powhatan’s Confederacy
Piedmont, Algonquians, “seminary of sedition”
Barbados Slave Code, Restoration period, Deganawidah
Tuscaroras, Iroquois Confederacy, “soil butchery”
John Smith, John Rolfe, indentured servant
Lord Baltimore, Charles II, Hiawatha
Lords Proprietors, Savannah Indians, Lord de la Warr
Tuscaroras, Yamasees, James Oglethorpe
Handsome Lake, John Wesley, House of Burgesses
primogeniture, joint-stock company, Act of Toleration
Virginia Company, Iroquois Confederacy, proprietorship
Be able to explain the following fully:
–Trace the establishment of the five southeastern English colonies of Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, and Georgia, outlining their similarities and differences.
— How did the Indians respond to English settlement? What factors prevented them from resisting effectively? What attempts were made by the Indians to overcome this?
— How did English land laws influence the English settlement of North America?
— Outline the beginning of the plantation system and its importation to America. How did colonists deal with the need for labor before slavery became widespread?
— Go to http://www.virginiaplaces.org/regions/fallshape.html on the internet. What is the Fall Line? How did it influence Native American and English settlement?

Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619-1700
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Anne Hutchinson, William Penn,Sir Edmund Andros
Roger Williams, John Winthrop, “the elect”
William Bradford, John Cotton, predestination
covenant, Separatists, Bible Commonwealth
Mayflower Compact, Puritans, Dominion of New England
Navigation Laws, freemen, antinomianism
Pilgrims, New England Confederation
Fundamental Orders, Quakers, King Philip’s War
“salutary neglect”, Middle Colonies, “bread colonies”
Eurocentrism, the Chesapeake, “Blue Laws”
“Protestant work ethic”, Metacom, “royal colony”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Describe the three separate regions of English colonies.  How did each region differ from the others, and why?
— Describe the Puritan/Separatist drive to establish colonies.  How did religious beliefs inform their actions?
–Respond to the following: “Early America was a haven for religious dissidents.”
–Explain the relationship between the mother country and the English colonies, including an explanation of the era of “neglect” and its aftermath. Contrast the New England Confederation with the Dominion of New England.
— Describe the interaction between the English and the Native Americans. How were the Puritans and Quakers different in their relations with natives?  Compare English actions with those of the Spanish.

Chapter 4 American Life in the Seventeenth Century, 1607-1692
Identify the historical significance of the following:
William Berkeley, Nathaniel Bacon, headright system
middle passage, Bacon’s Rebellion, “freedom dues”
Royal African Company, Gullah, midwifery
Salem Witch Trials, Halfway Covenant, gentry
the Chesapeake, “white slaves”, “freedom dues”
House of Burgesses, “Yankee ingenuity”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Describe the abuses of the indentured servant system. How did the conditions freedmen faced become potentially explosive? How did the headright system exacerbate the frustrations of the freedmen? Why do you think “No slave uprising in American history matched the scale of Bacon’s Rebellion?”
— List the pros and cons of being a woman in the Chesapeake during the 17th century. Why would so few women live to be forty years old? What were the challenges faced by early American families? Explain the statement that “New England invented grandparents.”
— List the factors that made importing African slaves more appealing after 1680. Why did so many slaves have to be imported during the years before 1720? What caused the decline of importation? Describe how cultural interaction influenced both the colonists and the slaves.
— Why did the Puritans face a crisis of faith in the mid-17th century? How did they attempt to deal with this? Evaluate the efficacy of this transition.

Chapter 5 Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700-1775
Identify the historical significance of the following:

Pennsylvania Dutch, Scots-Irish, Irish-Catholics
Shenandoah Valley, Great wagon road, Paxton Boys
Regulator movement, Michel-Guillaume de Crevecoeur
“jayle birds”, diphtheria, bread colonies
tobacco, cod, triangular trade, rum/slaves/molasses
timber, naval stores, Molasses Act
taverns, established churches, Anglicans
Congregationalist Church, “dead dogs”, Arminianism
Great Awakening (First), Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield
Old Lights, New Lights, schisms
Princeton/Brown/Rutgers/Dartmouth, Cambridge, orthodoxy
John Trumbull, Charles Wilson Peale, Benjamin West
Phillis Wheatley, –Poor Richard’s Almanack, Benjamin Franklin
John Peter Zenger, seditious libel, royal colonies
proprietary colonies, control over the purse, militia
“Popery”, Gary Nash, Christine Heyrman
Edmund S. Morgan
Be able to explain the following fully:
— How did religious life undergo a transformation in the 18th century, and why?
— Describe the main industries of the American colonies, and their locations.
— What was the importance of the Zenger case?

Chapter 6 The Duel for North America, 1608-1763

Identify the historical significance of the following:

Huguenots, Edict of Nantes, Quebec
Samuel de Champlain, Iroquois, New France
–coureurs de bois, voyageurs, Montreal
Jesuits, Antoine Cadillac, Louisiana
King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, Kaskaskia, Vincennes, Cahokia
Schenectady & Deerfield, Peace of Utrecht
Acadia, “salutary neglect”, War of Jenkins’s Ear
King George’s War, Louisbourg, Ohio Valley
Ft. Duquesne, George Washington, Ft. Necessity
Acadians/ Cajuns, French and Indian War, Seven Years’ War
Albany Congress, Ben Franklin, Edward Braddock
regulars, buckskins, invasion of Canada
William Pitt, “Great Commoner”, James Wolfe
Plains of Abraham, Marquis de Montcalm, Battle of Quebec
Treaty of Paris (1763), Pontiac’s uprising, smallpox
Proclamation of 1763

Be able to explain the following fully:
– What effects did the French and Indian War have upon the colonies?
– Examine the causes and effects of the Proclamation of 1763.
– Explain what is meant by the phrase “curse of colonial disunity” and its potential influence in the years before the American Revolution.

Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution, 1763-1775
Identify the historical significance of the following:

“rights of Englishmen, ”republicanism, radical Whigs, mercantilism
Navigation Laws, enumerated products, John Hancock, George Grenville
Sugar Act of 1764, Quartering Act of 1765, Stamp tax (Stamp Act), Admiralty courts
“no taxation without representation,” “virtual representation,” nonimportation agreements
Sons of Liberty, Daughters of Liberty, Declaratory Act, Charles Townshend, Townshend Acts
Boston Massacre, Crispus Attucks, mulatto, King George III
Lord North, Samuel Adams, John Adams, committees of correspondence
sedition, Philadelphia/New York,/Annapolis/Charleston, Thomas Hutchinson
Boston Tea Party, “Intolerable Acts”, Boston Port Act, Quebec Act
1st Continental Congress, Patrick Henry, Declaration of Rights, The Association
boycott, Lexington & Concord, “Minute Men,” Hessians
Loyalists, English Whigs, Tories, George Washington
Benjamin Franklin, Marquis de Lafayette, “Continental,” Valley Forge
Baron von Steuben, Prince Whipple, Lord Dunsmore, “Ethiopian Regiment”

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Evaluate the impact of British legislative policies on the colonies.
— Was the failure of British policies more in actions or in attitudes? Explain.
— Did the colonists truly suffer from “taxation without representation?” Explain.
— Outline the main features of mercantilism. What implications did this theory have on former colonies? How does this affect modern former colonies?
— How did the Seven Years’ War change the relationship between Britain and its colonies?

Chapter 8 America Secedes from the Empire, 1775-1783
Identify the historical significance of the following:

2nd Continental Congress, George Washington, Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold
Ticonderoga & Crown Point, Breed’s/ Bunker Hill, Olive Branch Petition, Hessians
mercenaries, invasion of Canada, Richard Montgomery, Evacuation Day
Thomas Paine, Common Sense, republicanism, citizen “virtue”
collective good, “natural aristocracy”, “leveling”, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson
Declaration of Independence, “natural rights”, bill of indictment, Patriots
Declaration of the Rights of Man, Abigail Adams, Loyalists, anarchy
Volunteers of Ireland, North Caroline Highlanders, Colonel Tye, United Empire Loyalists
“Tories”/ “Whigs”, militia, William Franklin, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams
Anglican Church, Presbyterianism, Congregationalism, confiscation, New York
Battle of Long Island, adversary, William Howe, Trenton, ruse
Princeton, John Burgoyne, Barry St. Leger, St. Lawrence River
flotilla, Benjamin Franklin, Saratoga, Horatio Gates, free trade
freedom of the seas, novus ordo seclorum, John Adams, home rule
1778 treaty of alliance, Armed Neutrality, Monmouth, Comte de Rochambeau
West Point, King’s Mountain/ Cowpens, Carolina campaign, Nathanael Greene, Iroquois Confederacy
George Rogers Clark, Kaskaskia/Vincennes/Cahokia, John Paul Jones, privateers
Lord Cornwallis, Admiral de Grasse, Yorktown, “No quarter for Tories”, Lord North
John Jay, intrigue, Treaty of Paris 1783, Liberality, “Whig view of history”
George Bancroft, Progressive historians, J. Franklin Jameson, consensus historians, Edmund Morgan
Bernard Bailyn, Gary Nash, neoprogressives

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Trace the major causes of the American Revolution, including the economic, political, ideological, and social differences between the colonists and the British.
— Evaluate the role of the French in the Revolution.
— Explain the role of Native Americans in the Revolution.  What effects did their involvement have?
— Compare and contrast the main features of a republic with the  “mixed” government then in operation in Britain. What criticisms did some political leaders make against republicanism in terms of its effect on the social hierarchy?
— What factors TRULY enabled the Americans to bring the British to the peace table in 1783?
— Evaluate the role of the French in the Revolution.
— Explain the role of Native Americans in the Revolution. What effects did their involvement have?

Chapter 9 The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776-1790

Identify the historical significance of the following:
Society of Cincinnati, Land Ordinance of 1785, fundamental law
republican motherhood, The Federalist, “government by supplication”
Abigail Adams, Northwest Ordinance, Constitutional Convention
Daniel Shays, Shays’ Rebellion, “demigods”
Philadelphia, Alexander Hamilton, sovereignty
quorum, “Great Compromise”, Electoral College
three-fifths compromise, Federalists, Anti-Federalists
large state(Virginia) plan, Charles Beard, small state (New Jersey) plan
Northwest Territory, John Jay, “King Congress”
depreciation, “mobocracy”, Annapolis Convention
paper-moneyites, James Madison, referendum
bills of rights, civic virtue, Va. Statute for Religious Freedom
Articles of Confederation, Maryland, nationalists
checks and balances, bicameral, unicameral
Nationalist school, consensus historians, extensive republic

Be able to explain the following fully:
— How was the idea of equality and sovereignty important in the creation of the Confederacy? How did these ideas effect
1) the power of the states relative to the national government, and
2) the constitutions of the states?
— The Articles of Confederation have been called “the Articles of Confusion.” Explain whether you think this is accurate, and why.
— Describe the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. What process did it lay out? Describe a township under the features of the Ordinance. What was the purpose of the lot designated for schools. What does this indicate about post-revolutionary values?
— Why was debt such a danger under the Articles? Why were questions of wealth so important? What were some effects of the inability to manage debt and credit on
1) the nation?
2) the states?
3) individuals?
— Compare and contrast the “large state plan” with the “small state plan.” What effects were there from the competition between these two plans?
— Compare the main beliefs of the Federalists with those of the Anti-Federalists.

Chapter 10 Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800
Identify the historical significance of the following:

George Washington, New York City, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton
Henry Knox, Bill of Rights, 9th Amendment, 10th Amendment
Judiciary Act of 1789, John Jay, funding at par, assumption
District of Columbia, the Potomac, “Father of the National Debt”, customs duties/ tariff
excise tax, bank of the United States, national currency, literal/strict interpretation
necessary and proper/ elastic clause, loose/ broad interpretation, implied powers, “Liberty and No Excise”
“Whiskey Boys”, factions, parties, two-party system
Democratic- Republicans, Federalists, French Revolution, “mobocracy”
Reign of Terror, Enlightenment, Declaration of the Rights of Man, Napoleon Bonaparte
Franco-American alliance of 1778, isolationism, Edmond Genet, Miami Confederacy
Little Turtle, Josiah Harmar, Arthur St. Clair, Anthony Wayne
Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of Greenville, Anglophile, Jay’s Treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty, right of deposit, Farewell Address, merchant marine
“Father of His Country”, John Adams, war faction/High Federalists, envoys
John Marshall, XYZ Affair, “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”
Navy Department, Marine Corps, Undeclared war with France (Quasi-War)
Convention of 1800, Alien Laws, Sedition Act, Matthew Lyon
VA & KY Resolutions, compact theory, nullification, secession

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Describe the beginning of political parties, and outline the main differences between the Federalists and the Republicans.
— Explain how Washington and Hamilton shaped a vision for America’s political and economic future.
— Why did Federalists and Republicans differ on the French Revolution?
— What was the importance of the concept of nullification?

Chapter 11 The Triumphs and Travails of Jeffersonian Democracy, 1800-1812
Identify the historical significance of the following:

“John Adams’ Jackasses”, whispering campaign, Sally Hemings, Aaron Burr
“slave power”, lame-duck, Revolution of 1800, Albert Gallatin
Judiciary Act of 1801, midnight judges, John Marshall, William Marbury
James Madison, Marbury v. Madison, judicial review, Samuel Chase
“high crimes and misdemeanors”, “judge breaking”, “peaceful coercion”, Barbary States/Algiers
Pasha of Tripoli, Stephen Decatur, Tripolitan War, “Jeffs”/”mosquito fleet”
Robert Livingston, Santo Domingo, Toussaint L’Ouverture, “empire of liberty”
Louisiana Purchase, “Valley of Democracy”, Meriwether Lewis, William Clark
“Great Muddy”, Corps of Discovery, Sacajawea, Zebulon Pike
Alexander Hamilton, James Wilkinson, treason trial, Battles of Trafalgar/Austerlitz
Orders in Council, impressment, press gangs, Chesapeake Affair
Embargo Act (“O Grab Me”), “Virginia lordlings”, Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
Macon’s Bill No. 2, “submission men”, war hawks, Tecumseh
The Prophet, William. H. Harrison, Shawnees, Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of the Thames, “On to Canada!”, “Mr. Madison’s War”Be able to explain the following fully:
— How did Jefferson’s policies strengthen the two-party system?
— How did Jefferson’s idealism and theoretical positions react to the reality of the presidency in the following areas:
a) strict constructionism
b) standing armies and navies
c) pacifism
— What were the causes and consequences of the Louisiana Purchase? What was surprising about Jefferson’s pursuit of this deal? What were the benefits of Lewis and Clark’s expedition?
— Explain the conflict with France leading up to the embargo.
— Outline the causes of the War of 1812, including the concerns of the War Hawks.
— Describe the growth in influence of the Supreme Court under John Marshall.
Chapter 12 The 2nd War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812-1814
Identify the historical significance of the following:
USS Constitution (Old Ironsides), Oliver Hazard Perry, Battle of the Thames, Thomas Macdonough,
Plattsburgh, Bladensburgh Races, Francis Scott Key, Star-Spangled Banner,
Andrew Jackson, Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Battle of New Orleans, John Quincy Adams,
Henry Clay, Congress of Vienna, Treaty of Ghent, “Blue Light” Federalists,
Hartford Convention, “Virginia dynasty,” Hartford resolutions, Rush-Bagot agreement,
nationalism, Wahington Irving, James Fennimore Cooper, North American Review,
Bank of the United States, Stephen Decatur, Tariff of 1816, internal improvements
Erie Canal, James Monroe, goodwill tour, Era of Good Feelings,
sectionalism, wildcat banks, panic of 1819, “Ohio fever,”
Cumberland Road, Land Act of 1820, Tallmadge Amendment, Black Code,
“Butternut,” “Yankee,” seminaries, Stephen Douglas,
peculiar institution, 36° 30′, “dirty bargain, Missouri Compromise
McCulloch v. Maryland, implied powers, loose construction, Cohens v. Virginia
Gibbons v. Ogden, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Daniel Webster, Anglo-American Convention
Lake of the Woods, Florida Purchase Treaty/ Adams- Onis, Alaska,
Monroe Doctrine, Russo-American Treaty, 54° 40′
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Outline the main military highlights of the War of 1812.
–Explain the main features of the Missouri Compromise, and analyze the conflicts surrounding it.
— Evaluate the causes and consequences of the Monroe Doctrine. How was it evaluated by foreign rulers, and why?

Chapter 13 The Rise of Jacksonian Democracy, 1824-1830
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Democrats, Whigs, “corrupt bargain,” James Monroe
John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford, Andrew Jackson
“Republicans,” John C. Calhoun, 12th Amendment, Speaker of the House
“minority president,” states’ rights, Cherokee, National-Republicans,
Democratic-Republicans, formal party convention, “King Mob,” Alexis de Tocqueville
individualism, spoils system, Tariff of Abominations/1828, Denmark Vesey,
abolitionism, South Carolina Exposition, “nullies,” “submission men”
Nullification Crisis, Robert Hayne, Tariff of 1833, Force Bill
Society for Propagating the Gospel Among Indians, Sequoyah
Five Civilized Tribes, Indian removal Act, Trail of Tears, Indian Territory
Bureau of Indian Affairs, Black Hawk War, Seminole War, Osceola,
Nicholas Biddle, Bank War, recharter bill, Anti-Masonic Party,
nominating Convention, “Biddle’s Panic,” pet banks, Specie Circular
cronyism, Martin van Buren, Panic of 1837, “Divorce Bill,”
Stephen Austin, Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, Sam Houston, Santa Anna,
Alamo, Goliad, San Jacinto, Lone Star Republic,
annexation, slavocracy, “slavery plot,”
Old Three Hundred, Anglos, tejanos, Samuel Maverick,
William H. Harrison, John Tyler, “coonskin congressmen,” Frederick Jackson Turner,
Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Richard Hofstadter, “market revolution,”

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Describe the presidency of John Quincy Adams. In what ways was his presidency comparable to that of his father?
— Contrast Adams and Jackson as symbols of the old and new politics.
— Outline the reasons for the rising sectionalism in the 1820s and 1830s.
— Describe the struggle between states’ rights and federal authority during the Jacksonian era.
— How were the different sections of the country affected by the Tariff of 1828?

Chapter 14 Forging the National Economy, 1790-1860
Identify the historical significance of the following:

yeomen, “Self-Reliance,” James F. Cooper, Herman Melville,
“rugged individualism,” George Catlin, “Queen of the South,”
“hog butcher for the world,” “surplus” people, “America letters,” “Black Forties,”
slums, “Biddies/Paddies,” NINA, city machines, “famine Irish,”
Conestoga wagons, kindergarten, “Dutchmen,” nativists,
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, Know-Nothing Party, Awful Disclosures,
modern factory system, Forty-Eighters, Amish/ Mennonites, Samuel Slater
Moses Brown, Eli Whitney, cotton gin, “King Cotton,”
Piedmont, long-staple/short-staple cotton (see picture caption p. 319),
mass production (assembly line), interchangeable parts, Elias Howe, Isaac Singer,
Patent Office, limited liability, Boston Associates, “free incorporation,”
Samuel Morse, Great Exhibition,, workingmen’s parties, ten-hour day,
strikes, scabs, depression of 1837, Commonwealth v. Hunt,
“factory girls,” Lowell mills, Catherine Beecher,cult of domesticity,
“women’s sphere,” fertility rate, “domestic feminism,” trans-Allegheny region,
“Porkopolis,” John Deere, Cyrus McCormick, subsistence farming,
cash-crop agriculture, Lancaster Turnpike, National (Cumberland) Road, Robert Fulton,
“Fulton’s Folly,” Erie Canal, DeWitt Clinton, canal consequences,
gauges, Pullman sleeping palaces, Cyrus Field, merchant marine,
clipper ships, Pony Express,”internal improvements,” market revolution,
Roger Taney, John Jacob Astor, “social mobility”

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Examine the changing role of women in an industrialized America. Describe the backlash to this shift in values.
— Describe the revolution in transportation that occurred in the 19th century. How was each section affected? How did this revolution encourage industrialization?
— Explain the lives of the “wage slaves,” and outline how labor organization developed.

Chapter 15 The Ferment of Reform and Culture, 1790-1860

(USE the charts attached as a pdf file to help with all the names!)
Authors, Artists chart ch. 15
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Ralph W. Emerson, The Age of Reason, Unitarians, 2nd Great Awakening,
camp meetings, Peter Cartwright, Charles Finney, Burned-Over District,
Millerites, Joseph Smith, Book of Mormon, Brigham Young,
Mormon Corridor, ragged schools, Horace Mann, Noah Webster,
William McGuffey, University of Virginia, Emma Willard, Mary Lyon,
lyceum, North American Review, imprisonment for debt, reformatories,
penitentiaries, Dorothea Dix, William Ladd, American Temperance Society,
Cold Water Army, teetotalism, Neal S. Dow, Maine Law of 1851,
“submerged sex,” spinsters, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Blackwell, Margaret Fuller, Grimke sisters,
Seneca Falls Convention, Robert Owen/New Harmony, Brook Farm,
Nathaniel Hawthorne, Oneida, Shakers, Ann Lee, Benjamin Silliman,
Louis Agassiz, Asa Gray, John Audubon, John Humphrey Noyes, utopianism,
“Bible Communism,” Putney Association, Greek revival architecture, Edward Everett,
Gilbert Stuart, Charles W. Peale, John Trumbull, Hudson River School,
minstrel shows, Stephen Foster, Ben Franklin’s Autobiography, Knickerbocker Group,
Washington Irving, “Legend of Sleepy Hollow”/ “Rip van Winkle,” James F. Cooper,
Natty Bumppo, “natural men,” William C. Bryant, transcendentalism,
“The American Scholar,” Henry D. Thoreau, Walden, On the Duty of Civil Disobedience,
Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass, “Poet Laureate of Democracy,” Henry W. Longfellow,
John Whittier, James Lowell, Oliver W. Holmes, Louisa May Alcott,
Emily Dickinson, Edgar Allen Poe, William Gillmore Simms, Nathaniel Hawthorne
Herman Melville
George Bancroft, William H. Prescott, Francis Parkman

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Describe the revivals of the 2nd Great Awakening, and compare these with those of the 1st Great Awakening.
–Describe how the spirit of reform affected the following areas:
a) education,
b) the role of women, and the family,
c) literature and the arts.
— Explain how the Second Great Awakening was both conservative and unconventional in nature. In what ways did the Second Great Awakening intensify divisions in American society?
— What were some proclamations issued from the Seneca Falls Conference? Why were these demands easy for many men, even reformers, to ignore?

Chapter 16 The South and the Slavery Controversy, 1793-1860
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Nat Turner, Elijah Lovejoy
William Lloyd Garrison, Sojourner Truth, abolitionism
Frederick Douglass, peculiar institution, Liberty party
Cotton Kingdom, Theodore D. Weld, Tappan brothers
“snobocracy,” Denmark Vesey, Republic of Liberia
Lane Rebels, The Liberator, mulattoes
American Colonization Society, oligarchy, “sold down the river”
“land butchery,” “mountain whites,” “third race”
William T. Johnson, black belt, Deep South
David Walker, Frederick Douglass, Free Soil Party
apologists, Mason-Dixon line, Gag resolution
John Quincy Adams, Garrisonians, American Slavery As It Is
Kenneth Stampp, Quakers, Stanley Elkins

Be able to explain the following fully:
— What were the economic and ecological consequences of a cash-crop agriculture centered on King Cotton?
— Explain the reasons why the South was inhospitable to public education and immigration.
— Outline the main abolitionist arguments, and the Southern responses.

Chapter 17 Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy, 1841-1848
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Wm. H. Harrison, Daniel Webster, John Tyler, Fiscal Bank/Corporation, Henry Clay,
Tariff of 1822, “3rd War With England,” Canadian insurrection, S. S. Creole,
Aroostook War, Mesabi iron range, Lone Star Republic, James K. Polk,
“lame duck,” joint resolution, Oregon Country, 54° 40′, Florida Treaty 1819,
Hudson’s Bay Company, Willamette Valley, Anglo-American Convention 1818, “Oregon fever,”
“dark-horse,” Manifest Destiny, “Fifty-four forty or Fight,” Liberty Party,
Robert J. Walker/ Tariff, independent treasury, Nueces River/ Rio Grande, John Slidell,
Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln, spot resolutions, Santa Anna,
Stephen Kearney, John C. Fremont, Bear Flag Republic, Buena Vista,
Winfield Scott, Nicholas Trist, armistice, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,
Conscience (Mexican) Whigs, John Calhoun, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses Grant
West Point, Annapolis, George Bancroft, los ninos, “Colossus of the North,”
Mexican Cession, Californios, Juniperro Serra, secularization program,

ranchos, Sutter’s Mill, David Wilmot, Wilmot Proviso

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Review previous chapters to determine why Clay was called “the Great Compromiser.” Why did he and his supporters have to continue in this trend? Do you think this tendency cost him in his many runs for the White House? Explain.
— Outline the origins of the Mexican War. Were the war’s opponents right in charging that Polk’s motivation was to add more pro-slavery territory to the US? Explain.

Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848-1854
Identify the historical significance of the following:
fire-eaters, Lewis Cass, popular sovereignty, free-soilers/Free Soil Party,

Zachary Taylor, Henry Clay, Conscience Whigs, Sutter’s Mill,
49ers, Mexican Cession, Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman,
Nashville Convention, “immortal trio,” Stephen Douglas, “Little Giant,”
“Great Nullifier,” 7th of March Speech, Old Guard/ Young Guard, William Seward,
“higher law,”  Millard Fillmore, Compromise of 1850,  Nashville Conventions, Fugitive Slave Law of 1850,
“Bloodhound Bill,” Compromise Union Whigs, “personal liberty laws,” Baltimore conventions,
Winfield Scott, “finality men,” Treaty of 1848 (Mallarino-Bidlack), Clayton-Bulwer Treaty,
William Walker, filibustering, Ostend Manifesto, Opium War,
Caleb Cushing, Treaty of Wanghia, Matthew C. Perry, Treaty of Kanagawa,
Jefferson Davis, Gadsden Purchase, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Nebrascals

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Evaluate the effects of the slavery controversy on the two-party system and the death of the Whigs.
— Describe the conflicts that culminated in the Compromise of 1850 and its provisions. How was the Kansas-Nebraska Act supposed to finally end this debate? What practical effects did it have?
— Outline the main arguments and personalities involved in the debates between “fire-eaters” and “Union savers.”
— How did the Fugitive Slave Law backfire against the South?
— How did American expansionism accelerate in the 1840s and 1850s, and thereby further intensify the controversy over the expansion of slavery? In which direction did expansionist Southerners turn, and why?

Chapter 19 Drifting Toward Disunion, 1854-1861
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Simon Legree, The Impending Crisis of the South,
New England Emigrant Aid Company, Beecher’s Bibles, border ruffians, John Brown,
Pottawatomie Creek, Lecompton Constitution, James Buchanan, Bleeding Kansas,
Charles Sumner, Preston Brooks, John C. Fremont, nativists,
American/Know-Nothing Party, Millard Fillmore, Roger B. Taney, Fifth Amendment
panic of 1857, Tariff of 1857,she-wolf, Lincoln-Douglas debates,
Freeport question/Doctrine, Harper’s Ferry, Charleston convention, Baltimore conventions,
John C. Breckinridge, Constitutional Union Party, minority president, South Carolina, Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis,
John Crittenden, Crittenden amendments, Border States, Nationalist School, progressive historians, “Eric Foner, Allan Nevins, David Potter, Ethnocultural School

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Outline the creation and growth of the Republican party, including the influence of the party in the elections of 1868, 1858, and 1860.
— Evaluate the effectiveness of the various compromises promoted to preserve the Union.
— Trace the rise of Lincoln through the events of the 1850s. How did he rise to prominence?
— Analyze the Kansas conflict as a microcosm for the struggles of the coming Civil War.
— Evaluate this statement: “The presidencies of Franklin and Buchanan ironically advanced the causes of the pro-slavery South.”

Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865
Identify the historical significance of the following:
William Seward, Clara Barton, Edwin Stanton
Jefferson Davis, Charles Francis Adams, Trent Affair
Morill Tariff Act, Draft Riots, Emperor Maximilian
King Cotton, Butternut region, Billy Yank/ Johnny Reb
“submissionists,” The Alabama, Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
Dorothea Dix, “Coal-oil Johnnies,” millionaires
Ft. Sumter, Richmond, Laird rams, Dorothea Dix
“King Wheat”/”King Corn,” “cotton famine,” invasions of Canada
writ of habeas corpus, conscription, “$300 men”
bounty brokers/ jumpers, Sally Tompkins, “shoddy millionaires”
59ers, Homestead Act of 1862, “government girls”
plutocracy, rebel yell, “Mountain whites” “brothers’ war”
commerce raiders, income tax, greenbacks, National Banking Act,
sizes, US Sanitary Commission, “Captains of Industry,”
rag money, Jay Cooke and Co.

Be able to explain the following fully:
— Discuss the crisis over Fort Sumter and the secession of the upper South. Why did the Upper South resist secession until this crisis?
— Evaluate and explain the tactics Lincoln used to keep the Border states within the Union. Why did the Border States merit such attention?
— Analyze Lincoln’s leadership in wartime and his role as martyr and hero. How did Lincoln limit civil liberties, and why?
— Explain the causes of the Civil War as delineated by both Northerners and Southerners.
— Evaluate this statement: “The Civil War did not break down neatly into a conflict between North and South.” Use the situation in Indian Territory as an example.
— Analyze the roles that foreign powers and economics played in the Civil War.

Chapter 21, The Furnace of Civil War, 1861-1865
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Andrew Johnson, John Wilkes Booth, Robert E. Lee
Thomas Jackson, Ulysses S. Grant, George McClellan
William T. Sherman, George Meade, Salmon P. Chase
Merrimack, Monitor, 13th Amendment
Emancipation Proclamation, Union party, 1st Battle of Bull Run
Antietam, Copperheads, Army of the Potomac
Peninsula Campaign, total war, Anaconda Plan
ironclads, Remember Fort Pillow, 54th Massachusetts
Gettysburg, Chancellorsville, Vicksburg
Andersonville, Clement Vallandingham, Wilderness Campaign
Be able to explain the following fully:
— List and explain the six components of total war advocated by the Union.
— Explain the importance of the Battle of Antietam both militarily and politically. What actual effects did the Emancipation Proclamation have?”
— Outline the strategies and commanders used at the Battle of Gettysburg.
— Analyze Grant’s rise to prominence.
— Compare the leadership of Lincoln with that of Jefferson Davis. What relative weaknesses did the government of the Confederacy have versus that of the Union?
— How did Sherman embody the concept of total war? Compare his tactics to those of Grant.
— Evaluate the costs of the Civil War.

Chapter 22, The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865-1877
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Oliver O. Howard, Exodusters, American Missionary Assoc.
Tenure of Office Act, Andrew Johnson,10 Percent Plan
Wade-Davis Bill, Freedmen’s Bureau, 14th Amendment
Charles Sumner, “Seward’s Folly,” 15th Amendment
Thaddeus Stevens, “whitewashed rebels,” scalawags
William Seward, Civil Rights Bill, carpetbaggers
radical regimes, Ku Klux Klan, Force Acts
Tenure of Office Act, sharecropping, Black Codes
Radical Republicans, Reconstruction Act, Military Reconstruction
Congressional Recon. “Home Rule” regimes Ex parte Milligan
Women’s Loyal League Union League literacy tests
Susan B. Anthony Frederick Douglass
Be able to explain the following fully:
–Evaluate the condition of the South at the end of the Civil War, particularly the economic and social revolution engendered by the end of slavery.
— Compare the Reconstruction plans of Lincoln and Johnson with the harsher congressional Reconstruction.
— Explain the actual impact of Reconstruction on the South.
— Analyze the impeachment and acquittal of Johnson in relation to the overreaching of the radical Republicans and the declining support for military Reconstruction in the North.

Chapter 23, Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age, 1869-1896
Identify the historical significance of the following:

Ulysses S. Grant , greenbacks,“Ohio Idea”
“waving the bloody shirt,” repudiation, speculation
Jay Cooke, “Black Friday,” Chester Arthur
William Belknap, general amnesty act, Panic of 1873
contraction, Half-Breeds, Civil Rights Act/Cases
tenant farming, crop lien system, “equal protection clause”
Roscoe Conkling, Jim Fisk, Grover Cleveland
Jay Gould, Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield
cheap money, hard/sound money, Gilded Age
spoils system, Resumption Act, Stalwart
Tweed Ring, Whiskey Ring, Greenback Labor Party
Compromise of 1877, Pendleton Act, Liberal Republicans
Blank- Allison Act, Credit Mobilier, Tammany Hall
great railroad strike, Chinese Exclusion Act, Mugwumps
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Analyze the corruption of the Gilded Age in relation to the increasingly low moral and political standards of the time. Contrast the quality of politicians with those of the previous age.
— Examine the presidential elections of the period in relation to the fierce competition of the third party system.
— Trace the history of the Fourteenth Amendment. Why is it one of the most significant parts of the Constitution?

Chapter 24, Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900
Identify the historical significance of the following:
Union Pacific Railroad—–Central Pacific Railroad—–Big Four
Collis Huntington—–Thomas Edison—–John Pierpont Morgan
Terence V. Powderly—–Andrew Carnegie—–John Altgeld
Interstate Commerce Act—–trust —–Bessemer process
“Drake’s Folly” —–Sherman Antitrust Act—–Gibson Girl
lockout—–company town—–National Labor Union
American Fed. of Labor—–Haymarket riot—–Knights of Labor
Samuel Gompers—–Mary Harris Jones—– “closed shop”
Cornelius Vanderbilt—–John D. Rockefeller—–Jay Gould
vertical integration—–horizontal integration—–pool
rebate —–interlocking directorate—–injunction
standard time—–US Steel—–Gospel of Wealth
the Grange—–William Graham Sumner —–yellow dog contract
American Federation of Labor—–New South
Northern Pacific Railroad—–Great Northern Railroad
James J. Hill—–“wedding of the rails”—-“Paddies”
Pullman Palace Cars—–“stock watering” —– Colored National Labor Union
scabs—– “Pittsburgh plus” pricing—– Birmingham steel
piecework—– James B. Duke—–Herbert Spencer
“Social Darwinism” —–Russell Conwell—–plutocracy
“Napoleon of the Smokestacks” —– “survival of the fittest”
Be able to explain the following fully:
— Explain the central role of the railroads in late 19th century America.
— Examine the dramatic impact of “big business” and the new industrial corporations on the American economy and American life in general.
— Examine the gains and losses for various groups (business, labor, women, minorities, immigrants) accruing from industrialization.

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